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Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment (HAART) for the Prevention of HIV Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) at Roosevelt Hospital's Infectious Diseases Clinic in Guatemala: The Role of (LPV/r) Standard Dose

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DOI: 10.4236/wja.2012.23034    3,513 Downloads   5,432 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The transmission of HIV from mother to child is reported from 30% to 40% without any intervention [1]. When all the measures for prevention are implemented, including treatment with HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment), the rate of infection can be reduced between 1% and 2% [2]. In Guatemala, the statistics demonstrated an estimated of 20,000 women living with HIV virus infection during the period of 2009. In this scenario, mother to child HIV transmission is an important public health fact. In preliminary reports, there is strong evidence of the impact of preventing mother to child transmission with Lopinavir/Ritonavir in Guatemala is showing a small incidence of new HIV infections and good tolerance [3,4]. Objective: To evaluate the effect of HAART with Lopinavir/Ritonavir on the prevention of mother to child transmission (PMCT) in HIV-positive pregnant women at Roosevelt Hospital in Guatemala City. Methods: A retrospective cohort analysis study. The detection of pregnant HIV positive women and the follow up period was from January 2003 to December 2009, and a total of 219 women completed the follow up time. The HIV diagnosis and follow up for the child was made with molecular testing and antibody testing up to 18 months of age or until testing was negative. Adherence was quantified by pill counts. The interventions where offered to all the women in the cohort. Results: Regarding the pregnancy outcome, the study cohort gave a rate of abortion of 2.3%; 10.6% of preterm births and 79.6% normal births. Of the 202/219 children born, there was a 1.4% rate of transmission (n = 3). The three infected children were born from mothers with high basal viral loads (xxx C/mL or higher). There were no serious adverse events related to antiretroviral therapy with Lopinavir/Ritonavir, with a 6.1% of non serious adverse events, most of them of gastrointestinal type, and anemia. Conclusions: The rate of transmission of HIV from mother to child was low in this population (1.4%), comparable to findings from similar studies [4]. Lopinavir/Ritonavir was well tolerated in this cohort and no serious adverse events in this population were reported.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

C. Mejia Villatoro, M. Eugenia Luarte, G. Villatoro Natareno, J. Werner Juárez, C. Maria Rodríguez, A. Bertila Gonzalez, C. Marleny Pérez and M. Martinez, "Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment (HAART) for the Prevention of HIV Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) at Roosevelt Hospital's Infectious Diseases Clinic in Guatemala: The Role of (LPV/r) Standard Dose," World Journal of AIDS, Vol. 2 No. 3, 2012, pp. 259-264. doi: 10.4236/wja.2012.23034.

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