Share This Article:

Coliform Bacteria: The Effect of Sediments on Decay Rates and on Required Detention Times in Stormwater BMPs

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:248KB) PP. 787-797
DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.328094    4,211 Downloads   6,828 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Fecal indicator bacteria, such as total coliforms and E. coli, are a challenge to control in urban and rural stormwater runoff. To assess the challenges of improving bacterial water quality standards in surface waters, microcosm experiments were conducted to assess how decay rates of total coliforms and E. coli are affected by sediments and associated organic matter. Samples were collected at a lake embayment to create laboratory microcosms consisting of different combinations of unsterilized and sterilized water and sediment. Calculated first-order decay rate constants ranged from 0.021 to 0.047 h-1 for total coliforms and 0.017 and 0.037 h-1 for E. coli, depending on how each microcosm was prepared. It is evident that sediment in contact with the water column decreases bacteria decay rate, showing that care should be taken when designing stormwater treatment measures. In addition, high organic carbon content in the sediment temporarily increased bacteria concentrations in the water column. The results demonstrate that stormwater treatment measures, such as extended detention basins and constructed wetlands, must hold water for several days to allow for reduction of bacterial concentrations to acceptable levels. In addition, to troubleshoot detention basins and constructed wetlands for causes of high effluent bacterial concentrations, analyses of sediment, organic carbon, and water column depth should be conducted.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

A. Kinnaman, C. Surbeck and D. Usner, "Coliform Bacteria: The Effect of Sediments on Decay Rates and on Required Detention Times in Stormwater BMPs," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 3 No. 8A, 2012, pp. 787-797. doi: 10.4236/jep.2012.328094.

References

[1] J. M. Colford, T. J. Wade, K. C. Schiff, C. C. Wright, J. F. Griffith, S. K. Sandhu, S. Burns, M. D. Sobsey, G. Lovelace and S. B. Weisberg, “Water Quality Indicators and the Risk of Illness at Beaches with Nonpoint Sources of Fecal Contamination,” Epidemiology, Vol. 18, 2007, pp. 27-35.
[2] D. Mardon and D. Stretch, “Comparative Assessment of Water Quality at Durban Beaches according to Local and International Guidelines,” Water SA, Vol. 30, No. 3, 2004, pp. 317-324. Hdoi:10.4314/wsa.v30i3.5079
[3] USEPA, “National Summary of Impaired Waters and TMDL Information,” 2012. http://iaspub.epa.gov/waters10/attains_nation_cy.control?p_report_type=T
[4] C. Q. Surbeck, S. C. Jiang, J. H. Ahn and S. B. Grant, “Flow Fingerprinting Fecal Pollution and Suspended Solids in Stormwater Runoff from an Urban Coastal Watershed,” Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 40, No. 14, 2006, pp. 4435-4441. Hdoi:10.1021/es060701h
[5] T. M. Petersen, H. S. Rifai, M. Suarez and A. R. Stein, “Bacteria Loads from Point and Nonpoint Sources in an Urban Watershed,” Journal of Environmental Engineering-ASCE, Vol. 131, No. 10, 2005, pp. 1414-1425. Hdoi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9372(2005)131:10(1414)
[6] H. Li and A. P. Davis, “Water Quality Improvement through Reductions of Pollutant Loads Using Bioretention,” Journal of Environmental Engineering-ASCE, Vol. 135, No. 8, 2009, pp. 567-576. Hdoi:10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0000026
[7] J. M. Hathaway, W. F. Hunt and S. Jadlocki, “Indicator Bacteria Removal in Storm-Water Best Management Practices in Charlotte, North Carolina,” Journal of Environmental Engineering-ASCE, Vol. 135, No. 12, 2009, pp. 1275-1285. Hdoi:10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0000107
[8] B. M. Wadzuk, M. Rea, G. Woodruff, K. Flynn and R. G. Traver, “Water-Quality Performance of a Constructed Stormwater Wetland for All Flow Conditions,” Journal of the American Water Resources Association, Vol. 46, No. 2, 2010, pp. 385-394. Hdoi:10.1111/j.1752-1688.2009.00408.x
[9] E. M. Smith and Y. T. Prairie, “Bacterial Metabolism and Growth Efficiency in Lakes: The importance of Phosphorus Availability,” Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 49, No. 1, 2004, pp. 137-147. Hdoi:10.4319/lo.2004.49.1.0137
[10] C. Q. Surbeck, S. C. Jiang and S. B. Grant, “Ecological Control of Fecal Indicator Bacteria in an Urban Stream,” Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 44, No. 2, 2010, pp. 631-637. Hdoi:10.1021/es903496m
[11] H. C. Jeng, A. J. England and H. B. Bradford, “Indicator Organisms Associated with Stormwater Suspended Particles and Estuarine Sediment,” Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Vol. 40, No. 4, 2005, pp. 779-771. doi:10.1081/ESE-200048264
[12] C. H. Bolster, J. M. Bromley and S. H. Jones, “Recovery of Chlorine-Exposed Escherichia coli in Estuarine Microcosms,” Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 39, No. 9, 2005, pp. 3083-3089. Hdoi:10.1021/es048643s
[13] D. L. Craig, H. J. Fallowfield and N. J. Cromar, “Use of Microcosms to Determine the Persistence of Escherichia coli in Recreational Coastal Water and Sediment and Validation with in Situ Measurements,” Journal of Applied Bacteriology, Vol. 96, No. 5, 2004, pp. 922-930. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.2004.02243.x
[14] R. L. Smith, “The Resilience of Bottomland Hardwood Wetlands Soils Following Timber Harvest,” M.S. Thesis, University of Mississippi, Oxford, 1997.
[15] Soil Survey Division Staff, “Soil Survey Manual,” Handbook 18, US Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, 1993.
[16] D. L. Craig, H. J. Fallowfield and N. J. Cromar, “Enumeration of Faecal Coliforms from Recreational Coastal Sites: Evaluation of Techniques for the Separation of Bacteria from Sediments,” Journal of Applied Microbiology, Vol. 93, No. 4, 2002, pp. 557-565. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2672.2002.01730.x
[17] Y. Jeong, S. B. Grant, S. Ritter, A. Pednekar, L. Candelaria and C. Winant, “Identifying Pollutant Sources in Tidally Mixed Systems: Case Study of Fecal Indicator Bacteria from Marinas in Newport Bay, Southern California,” Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 39, No. 23, 2005, pp. 9083-9093. Hdoi:10.1021/es0482684
[18] A. D. Eaton, L. S. Clesceri, E. W. Rice and A. E. Greenbert, “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,” American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation, Washington DC, 2005.
[19] D. W. Nelson and L. E. Sommers, “Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter,” In: A. L. Page, et al., Eds., Methods of Soil Analysis Part 2, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, 1996, pp. 961-1010.
[20] USEPA, “Total Maximum Daily Loads with Stormwater Sources: A Summary of 17 TMDLs, July 2007 EPA 841- R-07-002,” National Center of Environmental Publications, Washington DC, 2007.
[21] USEPA, “Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Bacteria—1986. EPA 440-5-84-002,” National Center of Environmental Publications, Washington DC, 1986.
[22] S. C. Chapra, “Surface Water-Quality Modeling,” WCB McGraw-Hill, Boston, 1997.
[23] Wright Water Engineers Inc. and Geosyntec Consultants, “International Stormwater BMP Database, Pollutant Category Summary: Fecal Indicator Bacteria,” 2010. www.bmpdatabase.org
[24] S. D. Struck, A. Selvakumar and M. Borst, “Performance of Stormwater Retention Ponds and Constructed Wetlands in Reducing Microbial Concentrations EPA 600-R- 06-102,” National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Urban Watershed Management Branch, Edison, NJ, 2006.
[25] A. P. Davis and R. H. McCuen, “Stormwater Management for Smart Growth,” Springer, New York, 2005.
[26] H. M. Solo-Gabriele, M. A. Wolfert, T. R. Desmarais and C. J. Palmer, “Sources of Escherichia coli in a Coastal Subtropical Environment,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 66, 2000, pp. 230-237.
[27] R. Fujioka, C. Sian-Denton, M. Borja, J. Castro and K. Morphew, “Soil: The Environmental Sources of E. coli and Enterococci in Guam’s Streams,” Journal of Applied Microbiology Symposium Supplement, Vol. 85, 1999, pp. 83S-89S.
[28] P. La Liberte and D. J. Grimes, “Survival of Escherichia coli in Lake Bottom Sediment,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 43, No. 3, 1982, pp. 623-628.
[29] M. Vital, D. Stucki, T. Egli and F. Hammes, “Evaluating the Growth Potential of Pathogenic Bacteria in Water,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 76, No. 19, 2010, pp. 6477-6484. Hdoi:10.1128/AEM.00794-10

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.