Share This Article:

Enhanced Timestamp Discrepancy to Limit Impact of Replay Attacks in MANETs

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:694KB) PP. 224-230
DOI: 10.4236/jis.2012.33028    3,773 Downloads   6,843 Views   Citations


Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs), characterized by the free move of mobile nodes are more vulnerable to the trivial Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks such as replay attacks. A replay attacker performs this attack at anytime and anywhere in the network by interception and retransmission of the valid signed messages. Consequently, the MANET performance is severally degraded by the overhead produced by the redundant valid messages. In this paper, we propose an enhancement of timestamp discrepancy used to validate a signed message and consequently limiting the impact of a replay attack. Our proposed timestamp concept estimates approximately the time where the message is received and validated by the received node. This estimation is based on the existing parameters defined at the 802.11 MAC layer.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

A. Baayer, N. Enneya and M. Elkoutbi, "Enhanced Timestamp Discrepancy to Limit Impact of Replay Attacks in MANETs," Journal of Information Security, Vol. 3 No. 3, 2012, pp. 224-230. doi: 10.4236/jis.2012.33028.


[1] J. Macker, “Mobile Ad Hoc Networking (MANET): Routing Protocol Performance Issues and Evaluation Considerations,” Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), Network Working Group (RFC 2501), January 1999.
[2] B. Wu, J. Chen, J. Wu and M. Cardei, “A Survey of Attacks and Countermeasures in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, in Wireless Network Security,” In: Y. Xiao, X. Shen and D.-Z. Du, Eds., Signals and Communication Technology, Springer, 2007.
[3] J. Bellardo, S. Savage and D. Medina, “802.11 Denial-of-Service Attacks: Real Vulnerabilities and Practical Solutions,” Proceedings of the USENIX Security Symposium, Washington DC, August 2003, pp. 15-27.
[4] I. Aad, J. Hubaux and E. W. Knightly, “Impact of Denial of Service Attacks on Ad Hoc Networks,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, Vol. 16, No. 4, 2008, pp. 791-802.
[5] K. Pelechrinis, M. Iliofotou and S. V. Krishnamurthy, “Denial of Service Attacks in Wireless Networks: The Case of Jammers,” IEEE Communication Surveys and Tutorials, Vol. 13, No. 2, 2011, pp. 245-257.
[6] Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications, IEEE Standards 802.11, 1997.
[7] P. Syverson, “A Taxonomy of Replay Attacks,” Proceedings of the Computer Security Foundations Workshop (CSFW97), 1994, pp. 187-191.
[8] S. Malladi, J. A. Foss and R. B. Heckendorn, “On Preventing Replay Attacks on Security Protocols,” International Conference on Security and Management, June 2002, pp. 77-83.
[9] J. V. E. Molsa, “Increasing the DoS Attack Resiliency in Military Ad Hoc Networks,” Proceedings of IEEE MILCOM, Atlantic City, 2005, pp. 1-7.
[10] Q. Gu, P. Liu, S. Zhu and C.-H. Chu, “Defending Against Packet Injection in Unreliable Ad Hoc Networks,” Proceedings of the IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM 05), 28 November-2 December 2005.
[11] Y. Xie and S. Yu, “Monitoring the Application-Layer DDoS Attacks for Popular Websites,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, Vol. 17, No. 1, 2009, pp. 15-25.
[12] R. M. Needham and M. D. Schroeder, “Using Encryption for Authentication in Large Networks of Computers,” Communications of the ACM, Vol. 21, No. 12, 1978, pp. 993-999.
[13] D. E. Denning and G. M. Sacco, “Timestamps in Key Distribution Protocols,” Communications of the ACM, Vol. 24, No. 8, 1981, pp. 533-536.
[14] T. H. Clausen, C. Adjih, P. Jacquet, A. Laouiti, P. Muhltahler and D. Raffo, “Securing the OLRS Protocol,” Proceedings of IFIP Med-Hoc-Net, June 2003.
[15] A. Hafslund, A. Tnnesen, R. B. Rotvik, J. Andersson and O. Kure, “Secure Extension to the OLSR Protocol,” Proceedings of the OLSR Interop and Workshop, San Diego, 2004.
[16] J. Suet and H. N. Liu, “Protecting Flow Design for DoS Attack and Defense at the MAC Layer in Mobile Ad Hoc Network,” International Conference, ICAIC, Xi’an, Vol. 224, Part 1, 2011.
[17] S. Xu and T. Saadawi, “Revealing the Problems with 802.11 Medium Access Control Protocol in Multi-Hop Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,” Computer Networks, Vol. 38, No. 4, 2002, pp. 531-548.
[18] V. Gupta, S. Krishnamurthy and M. Faloutsos, “Denial of Service Attacks at the MAC Layer in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,” MILCOM Proceedings, Anaheim, Vol. 2, pp. 1118-1123.
[19] T. Farooq, D. L. Jones and M. Merabti, “MAC Layer DoS Attacks in IEEE 802.11 Networks,” The 11th Annual Conference on the Convergence of Telecommunications, Networking and Broadcasting (PGNet 2010), Liverpool, 2010.
[20] F. Xing and W. Wang, “Understanding Dynamic Denial of Service Attacks in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proceedings of the 2006 IEEE Conference on Military Communications (MILCOM’06), Washington DC, 25-28 September 2006.
[21] J. Sobrinho, R. Haan and J. Brazio, “Why RTS-CTS Is Not your Ideal Wireless LAN Multiple Access Protocol,” Proceedings of IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, New Orleans, 2005.
[22] D. Raffo, “Security Schemes for the OLSR Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks,” Ph.D. Thesis, University Paris 6—INRIA Rocquencourt, 2005.
[23] E. Winjum, A. M. Hegland, O. Kure and P. Spilling, “Replay Attacks in Mobile Wireless Ad Hoc Networks: Protecting the OLSR Protocol,” Proceedings of International Conference on Networking (ICN 2005), Springer-Verlag, Volume 3421/2005, 2005, pp. 741-479.
[24] B. Vaidya, M. Denko and J. R. Rodrigues, “Security Mechanism for Voice over Multipath Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Journal of Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, Vol. 11, No. 2, 2011, pp. 196-210.
[25] D. E. Denning and G. M. Sacco, “Timestamps in Key Distribution Protocols,” Magazine Communications of the ACM, Vol. 24, No. 8, 1981.
[26] N. Enneya, A. Baayer and M. El koutbi, “A Dynamic Timestamp Discrepancy against Replay Attacks in MANET,” Communications in Computer and Information Science (CCIS 254), Springer-Verlag, 2011, pp. 479-489.
[27] D. Gross, J. F. Shortle, J. M. Thompson and C. M. Harris, “Fundamentals of Queueing Theory book,” 4th Edition, Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics, 2008.
[28] The Network Simulator (NS-2), 2012. http://www.
[29] T. Clausen and P. Jacquet, “Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing,” RFC 3561, July 2003.
[30] T. Clausen and P. Jacquet, “RFC 3626: The Optimized Link-State Routing Protocol,” Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Request for Comments, 2003.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.