Energy and Power Engineering, 2009, 94-99
doi:10.4236/epe.2009.12015 Published Online November 2009 (http://www.scirp.org/journal/epe)
Copyright © 2009 SciRes EPE
A New Multi-Method Combination Forecasting
Model for ESDD Predicting
Haiyan SHUAI, Qingwu GONG
1School of Electrical Engineering, Wuhan Technical College of Communications,
Wuhan University, Wuhan, China
2School of Electrical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China
Email: wdshy@126.com, whdxgqw@163.com
Abstract: Equal Salt Deposit Density (ESDD) is a main factor to classify contamination severity and draw
pollution distribution map. The precise ESDD forecasting plays an important role in the safety, economy and
reliability of power system. To cope with the problems existing in the ESDD predicting by multivariate linear
regression (MLR), back propagation (BP) neural network and least squares support vector machines
(LSSVM), a nonlinear combination forecasting model based on wavelet neural network (WNN) for ESDD is
proposed. The model is a WNN with three layers, whose input layer has three neurons and output layer has
one neuron, namely, regarding the ESDD forecasting results of MLR, BP and LSSVM as the inputs of the
model and the observed value as the output. In the interest of better reflection of the influence of each single
forecasting model on ESDD and increase of the accuracy of ESDD prediction, Morlet wavelet is used to con-
struct WNN, error backpropagation algorithm is adopted to train the network and genetic algorithm is used to
determine the initials of the parameters. Simulation results show that the accuracy of the proposed combina-
tion ESDD forecasting model is higher than that of any single model and that of traditional linear combina-
tion forecasting (LCF) model. The model provides a new feasible way to increase the accuracy of pollution
distribution map of power network.
Keywords: equal salt deposit density, multivariate linear regression, BP neural network, least squares support
vector machines, combination forecasting, wavelet neural network
1. Introduction
Exposed to dirty environment, surfaces of insulators will
be polluted. After being wetted, the polluted layers will
deduce insulators’ insulation capability which often in-
vites pollution flashover. According to the operation ex-
periences of power sectors, pollution flashover is one of
the main factors causing power accidents. In recent years
[1,2], there have happened several large area pollution
flashovers in some locals or the whole country, which
resulted in large area power blackout. Among all the
causes resulting in pollution flashover, the lag and the
inaccuracy of pollution distribution map of power net-
work is a primary one. Equal Salt Deposit Density
(ESDD) is the equivalent amount of NaCl that would
yield the same conductivity at complete dilution [3],
which is the dominant factor to classify contamination
severity and draw pollution distribution map. At present,
the methods of ESDD forecasting are mainly traditional
multivariate linear regression (MLR) technique [4,5],
back propagation (BP) neural network [6,7], and least
squares support vector machines (LSSVM) [8,9]. Com-
bination forecasting integrates the useful information of
all single forecasting models and generally considers
each forecasting result; hence it can more systemically
and comprehensively reflect the changes of an object
than a single model does. J. M. Bates and C. J. W.
Granger proved the combination of two or more than two
agonic single forecasting models can produce the result
better than that of each single model, which showed
combination forecasting method can increase prediction
accuracy [10].
To improve ESDD forecasting accuracy, a nonlinear
combination forecasting model based on wavelet neural
network (WNN) for ESDD is proposed. The model is a
WNN with three layers, whose inputs are the forecasting
results of the three ESDD forecasting models mentioned
above, i.e., MLR, BP and LSSVM, and outputs are the
observed values of ESDD. For the sake of better reflec-
tion of the influence of each single forecasting model on
ESDD and increase of the accuracy of ESDD prediction,
Morlet wavelet is used to construct WNN and error
backpropagation algorithm is adopted to train the net-
work. Simulation results show that the accuracy of the
proposed combination ESDD forecasting model is higher
than that of any single model and also higher than that of
H. Y. SHUAI ET AL. 95
traditional linear combined forecasting (LCF) model.
The model provides a new doable way to boost the pre-
cision of pollution distribution map of power network.
2. Brief Introductions of MLR, BP, LSSVM,
and LCF
2.1. MLR Model
If is a random variable predicted through y12
,,,
p
x
xx
and there is a linear relationship between them, then a
-variable linear regression equation can be constructed
as follow [11]:
p
011 pp
yx x

 
(1)
where is the number of independent variables.
p
Considering the groups of data observed are as
followings respectively:
n
12
(,,, ;)1,2,,
ii ipi
x
xxyin
Put 12
(,,, ;)1,2,,
ii ipi
x
xxyi 
 
 
 
 
SS
a
SS
a
2
2
2
[cos(1.75) exp()
2
1.75 sin(1.75) exp()]
2
k
k
SS
S
a
SS
S
a
 
b) Introduce momentum factor
to amend each pa-
rameter;
(1) ()()
(1) ()()
(1)()()
(1)()()
kk k
k
jk jkjk
jk
kk k
k
kk k
k
E
tt t
E
vt vtvt
v
E
bt btbt
b
E
at atat
a




 
 
 
 
where,
is the learning ratio and
is the momen-
tum factor.
c) Compute current output of WNN: put current pa-
rameters into (13) to get current output of the network;
d) Numerate error function value. When the error is
less than the set one, the learning process is terminated;
otherwise, turns to step (3).
4. Appraisal of Forecasting
In order to evaluate the prediction effects of the combi-
nation model comprehensively, according to the practice
and principle, the paper uses relative error
and aver-
age relative error
to evaluate the accuracy of the
prediction.
100%
ˆ
i
ii
y
yy

(16)
1i
100%
ˆ
1
y
I
ii
i
yy
I

(17)
where are the observed values and are the pre-
dicted ones. These values reflect comprehensively the
prediction results. The smaller
i
yˆi
y
and
are, the better
the generalization of the model and the corresponding
parameters are.
5. Experimental Results
On the basis of the model principles and modeling steps
in the text, Matlab 7.0 is adopted to write the ESDD pre-
diction programs based on WNN. References [4–7,9]
show there is a close relationship between insulators
ESDD and meteorological factors. So, for each single
model, 120 samples of the historical meteorological data
and ESDD data provided by “Optical Sensor System for
the ESDD Monitoring of Transmission Equipment” (de-
veloped by Wuhan High Voltage Research Institute and
Wuhan Kangpu Changqing Software Company) installed
on the ESDD monitoring spot of Qingshan District, Wu-
han ,from April to June in 2006, are regarded as training
set and forecasting set, where 90 samples belong to
training set, and the rest 30 samples to test set. Table 1
shows the comparisons between WNN combination
forecasting model and LCF, MLR, BP and LSSVM.
Figure 2. Optical sensor system for the ESDD monitoring of
transmission equipment
Copyright © 2009 SciRes EPE
H. Y. SHUAI ET AL.
Copyright © 2009 SciRes EPE
98
Table 1. Comparison of forecasting results of ten ESDD
Combination forecasting Single forecasting
WNN LCF MLR BP LSSVM
Times Actual
mg/cm2 Forecasting
mg/cm2 (%)
Forecasting
mg/cm2(%)
Forecasting
mg/cm2(%)
Forecasting
mg/cm2(%)
Forecasting
mg/cm2 (%)
2006.4.8 0.0268 0.0278 3.73 0.0252 5.970.0286 6.720.0249 7.09 0.0284 5.97
2006.4.16 0.0263 0.0271 3.04 0.0276 4.940.0291 10.650.0247 6.08 0.0286 8.75
2006.4.21 0.0390 0.0381 2.31 0.0375 3.850.0412 5.640.0421 7.95 0.0363 6.92
2006.5.3 0.0353 0.0362 2.55 0.0367 3.970.0331 6.230.0334 5.38 0.0342 3.12
2006.5.8 0.0232 0.0244 5.17 0.0244 3.610.0248 6.450.0251 8.19 0.0247 6.47
2006.5.13 0.0264 0.0255 3.41 0.0251 4.920.0239 9.470.0292 10.61 0.0244 7.58
2006.5.21 0.0487 0.0497 2.05 0.0517 6.160.0534 9.650.0527 8.21 0.0460 5.54
2006.6.1 0.0432 0.0414 4.17 0.0421 2.550.0463 7.170.0410 5.09 0.0455 5.32
2006.6.9 0.0459 0.0442 3.70 0.0481 4.790.0491 6.970.0427 6.97 0.0482 5.01
2006.6.18 0.0467 0.0484 3.64 0.0491 5.140.0411 11.990.0488 4.50 0.0451 3.43
(%)
3.377 4.590 8.094 7.007 5.811
Figure 3. Comparison between the predicted and the measured
compared with linear combination model, WNN combi-
nation model presented in the paper is more stable and
practical, and can improve efficiently forecasting preci-
sion. Using the ESDD predicted by WNN combination
forecasting model to divide pollution area can effectively
increase the accuracy of pollution distribution map.
From Table 1, it can be seen that the average relative
error of MLR is 8.09 which is the biggest one
among those of the five forecasting models, and that of
WNN is , the least one , and each relative error
of WNN is less than . The average relative error of
LCF is which is only bigger than that of WNN.
Besides, the maximum relative error of LCF, MLR, BP
and LSSVM are 6.16 , , and
respectively; while that of WNN is only .
This indicates that the prediction accuracy of combina-
tion model is higher than that of each single model, and
4%
6%
%
3.377%
4.590%
11.99% 10.61%
5.17.58% 7%
6. Conclusions
ESDD is a main factor to classify contamination severity
and draw pollution areas map of power network, hence its
accuracy directly influences the precision of pollution
H. Y. SHUAI ET AL. 99
distribution map, and further affects the insulation capa-
bility of power system.
The WNN combination forecasting model combined
with multivariable linear regression technique, BP neural
network and least squares support vector machines avoids
the limitations of linear combination model and single
forecasting model, so it can boost the forecasting accu-
racy, especially deduce maximum relative error, in other
words, it can decline predicting risk. The simulation re-
sults in Table 1 show in the five models, the prediction
accuracy of WNN combination model is the highest one,
namely, the values of WNN are closest to the observed
ones. The ESDD values produced by WNN combination
forecasting model can better meet the request of drawing
pollution distribution map of power network. The model
proposed by the paper is an effective and doable way for
ESDD forecasting and provides a new thinking for the
computerization of drawing pollution distribution map.
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