Journal of Environmental Protection, 2011, 2, 601-608
doi:10.4236/jep.2011.25069 Published Online July 2011 (
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JEP
Urban Green Spaces and an Integrative Approach
to Sustainable Environment
Shah Md. Atiqul Haq
Department of Asian and International Studies, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
Received January 5th, 2011; revised March 26th, 2011; accepted May 3rd, 2011.
This paper explains the benefits and challenges of urban green spaces based on the critical discussion of study results
from different studies in different cities. The important roles played by green spaces are social, econom ic, cultural and
environmental aspects of sustainable development. Urban green spaces can be a comprehensive tool for long term pro-
tection of environmental sustainability through improving the quality of life and air quality, increasing property value
due to their amenity and aesthetic characteristics, and reducing the energy costs of cooling buildings. Urban green
spaces also can provide ecosystem services in which the recreation and relaxation facilities are especially available to
urban dwellers and tourists too. To confirm the multiple roles played by green spaces, certain level of qualitative im-
provements and distribution of green spaces within the urban area should be considered and incorporated effectively
into the environmental sustainability agenda. To do this, an integrated approach regarding the planning, monitoring,
designing and maintain ing of urban green spaces is requ ired for improving the en vironmental sustainability in cities in
different countries.
Keywords: Integrative Approach, Socio-Economic Value , S ust ainable Envi ron ment, Urban Green Spaces
1. Introduction
Urban green spaces as an important contributor can be a
significant part of sustainable development. Develop-
ments of urban green spaces need to consider interdisci-
plinary and integrative approaches such as economic,
political, social, cultural, management and planning as-
pects to improve existing urban green spaces’ facilities
and services, and to optimize urban green space policies
[1]. The definition of urban green spaces which is agreed
on by ecologists, economists, social scientists and plan-
ners is public and private open spaces in urban areas,
primarily covered by vegetation, which are directly (e.g.
active or passive recreation) or indirectly (e.g. positive
influence on the urban environment) available for the
users [2]. Based on the studies of different cities, differ-
ent researchers provide some guidelines to evaluate the
nature of green spaces. Firstly, one of the main factors in
determining the nature of green spaces is their quan tity in
the city [3]. Secondly, existing qualities like activities
and experiences, and perceived benefits to the users de-
termine the utilization of green spaces [4]. Thirdly, the
functionality of those green spaces is equally influenced
by the location and distribution (accessibility) in the
whole city [4-6].
Irrespective of level of development of any country,
many countries are facing one of the most important
challenges: the adequate development of sustainable cit-
ies. In this regard, urban green spaces can provide social,
economic, cultural and psychological services especially
for the wellbeing of the urban dwellers and for tourists as
well. Sustainable development of cities and d evelopment
of urban green spaces are very important, since almost
half of the world population now live in urban area
where the pace for rural-urban migration and pressure
from international migration in developed countries is
still high, as most of the immigrants in developed coun-
tries live in central or big cities of the country. Moreover,
it is an urgent need to improve the lifestyles of urban
people and there shou ld be a special focus on the consid-
eration of environmental impact of human activities by
raising awareness to the rational use of energy, water and
food consumption and natural resources for environ-
mental sustainability. Finally, the role played by green
spaces in our urban environments can no longer be ig-
nored by today ’s pol i cy makers.
Since many studies conducted in cities in Europe , Asia
and USA show the enormous challenges in providing
Urban Green Spaces and an Integrative Approach to Sustainable Environment
quality level green spaces and adequate green spaces in
the cities. To get maximum level contribu tion from urban
green spaces, local approach and integrative approaches
should be focused to overcome the challenges faced by
different cities in different countries including the land
allocation, size and number of green spaces based on the
number of urban dwellers, accessible facilities for dwell-
ers or tourists. Finally, the paper is based on the relevant
studies and literature reviews to explain the benefits of
green spaces, functionality of urban green spaces. And
how and what ways the application of integrative ap-
proach can contribute to a potential solution to environ-
mental sustainability in different cities, especially in de-
veloping countries in consider to the challenges usually
coming from socio-economic factors, culture, population
growth, inadequate management, lack of proper imple-
mentation of environmental policies, excessive un-
planned rural-urban migration.
2. Benefits of Urban Green Spaces
2.1. Environmental Benefits
2.1.1. Ecological Benefits
Urban green spaces supply to cities with ecosystem ser-
vices ranging from maintenance of biodiversity to the
regulation of urban climate. Comparing with rural areas,
differences in solar input, rainfall pattern and tempera-
ture are usual in urban areas. Solar radiation, air tem-
perature, wind speed and relative humidity vary signifi-
cantly due to the built environment in cities [7]. Urban
heat island effect is caused by the large areas of heat ab-
sorbing surfaces, in combination of high energy use in
cities. Urban heat island effect can increase urban tem-
peratures by 5˚C [8]. Therefore, adequate forest planta-
tion, vegetation around urban dweller’s house, manage-
ment of water bodies by authorities can help to mitigate
the situation.
2.1.2. Pollu tion Control
Pollution in cities as a form of pollutan ts includes chemi-
cals, particulate matter and biological materials, which
occur in the form of solid particles, liquid droplets or
gases. Air and noise pollution is common phenomenon in
urban areas. The presence of many motor vehicles in
urban areas produces noise and air pollutants such as
carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. Emissions from
factories such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are
very toxic to both human beings and environment. The
most affected by such detrimental contaminants are chil-
dren, the elderly and people with respir atory problems [9].
Urban greening can reduce air pollutants directly when
dust and smoke particles are trapped by vegetation. Re-
search has shown that in average, 85% of air pollution in
a park can be filtered [8].
Noise pollution from traffic and other sources can be
stressful and creates health problems for people in urban
areas. The overall costs of noise have been estimated to
be in the range of 0.2% - 2% of European Union gross
domestic product [8]. Urban green spaces in over
crowded cities can largely reduce the levels of noise de-
pending on their quantity, quality and the distance from
the source o f noise po llu tion. In th e con tempo rary studies
on urban green spaces consider the complex urban eco-
system, conservation of the urban green spaces to main-
tain natural ecological network for environmental sus-
tainability in cities. For the cities in fast urbanizing and
growing economy, country like China should consider
the dynamic form of urban expanding to manage effec-
tive urban green spaces which will contribute to reduce
the overall CO2 by maintaining or even increasing the
ability of CO2 absorption via natural eco-system [10]
2.1.3. Biodiversity and Nat ure Conservation
Green spaces do functions as protection centre for re-
production of species and conservation of p lants, soil and
water quality. Urban green spaces provide the linkage of
the urban and rural areas. They provide visual relief,
seasonal change and link with natural world [11]. A
functional network of green spaces is important for the
maintenance of ecological aspects of sustainable urban
landscape, with greenways and use of plant species
adapted to the local cond ition with low mainten anc e cost,
self sufficient and sustainable [12].
2.2. Economic and Aesthetic Benefits
2.2.1. Energy Savings
Using vegetation to reduce the energy costs of cooling
buildings has been increasingly recognised as a cost effe-
ctive reason for increasing green space and tree planting
in temperate climate cities [7]. Plants improve air circu-
lation, provide shade and they evapotranspire. This pro-
vides a cooling effect and help to lower air temperatures.
A park of 1.2 km by 1.0 km can produce an air tempera-
ture between the park and the surrounding city that is
detectable up to 4 km away [7]. A study in Chicago has
shown that increasing tree cover in the city by 10% may
reduce the total energy for heating and cooling by 5 to
10% [9].
2.2.2. Propert y Val u e
Areas of the city with enough greenery are aesthetically
pleasing and attractive to both residents and investors.
The beautification of Singapore and Kuala Lumpur, Ma-
laysia, was one of the factors that attracted significant
foreign investments that assisted rapid economic growth
[9]. Still, indicators are very strong that green sp aces and
landscaping increase property values and financial re-
turns for land developers, of between 5% and 15% de-
opyright © 2011 SciRes. JEP
Urban Green Spaces and an Integrative Approach to Sustainable Environment603
pending on the type of project [7].
2.3. Social and Psychological Benefits
2.3.1. Recreation and Wellbeing
People satisfy most of their recreational needs within the
locality where they live. Findings by Nicol and Blake
(2000) show that over 80% of the UK’s population live
in urban areas, and thus green spaces within urban areas
provide a sustainable proportion of the total outdoor lei-
sure opportunities. A study conducted in Helsinki, Fin-
land, indicated that nearly all (97%) city residents parti-
cipate in some outdoor recreation during the year. Half of
the residents make outdoor visits on a daily basis or
every second day [6]. Urban green spaces serve as a near
resource for relaxation; provide emotional warmth [7]. In
Mexico City, the centrally located Chapultepec Park
draws up to three million visitors a week who enjoy a
wide variety of activities [9].
2.3.2. Human Heal th
People who were exposed to natural environment, the
level of stress decreased rapidly as compared to people
who were exposed to urban environment, their stress
level remained high [8]. In the same review, patients in
an hospital whose rooms were facing a park had a 10%
faster recovery and needed 50% less strong pain reliev-
ing medication as compared to patients whose rooms
were facing a building wall. This is a clear indication that
urban green spaces can increase the physical and psy-
chological wellbeing of urban citizens. In another re-
search conducted in Swedish cities showed that the more
time people spend outdoors in urban green spaces, the
less they are affected by stress [5]. Certainly, improve-
ments in air quality due to vegetation have a positive
impact on physical health with such obvious benefits as
decrease in respiratory illnesses. The conn ection between
people and nature is important for everyday enjoyment,
work productivity and general mental health [9].
3. Challenges toward Management of
Urban Green Spaces
3.1. Socio-Economic and Demographic Factors
High urbanization and the high pace of social and eco-
nomic development in Asia resulting fro m the increase of
population in cities, lack of infrastructure, congested
traffic, environmental degradation and a housing short-
age are major issues faced by cities in Asia in their sus-
tainable development [13]. According to population ex-
perts, 62 percent of the world’ population will live in
urban areas by the year 2020, while the Asia-Pacific Re-
gion will contain about 49 per cent of that urban popula-
tion and will have contained a level of urbanization of 55
per cent [13]. Bu t it is also n eed to ment ion that growth o f
population has been slowed down i n Asia-Pacifi c region.
The great threat to health and safety in cities comes
from water and air pollution. Especially those who are
poor and do not have adequate ventilation systems, air
pollution is hazardous for them women and children be-
cause they expose regularly and waterborne diseases are
found most commonly in low-income groups because of
inadequate sanitation , drainage and solid waste collection
services [13]. Another most important challenge facing
in Asia region due to over urbanization is the conversion
of agricultural land and forest for urban uses and the de-
velopment of infrastructure in urban areas. As a result,
widespread removal of vegetation to support urban eco-
system, ground water overdraft and put additional pres-
sure on nearby areas may be even more ecologically sen-
sitive and may even increase the higher frequency of
flooding in urban areas [13].
Cities cover 2% of land space worldwide but consume
75% of the resources [14]. Exposing city dwellers to lo-
cal biodiversity can also trigger in terest in environmental
issues, especially since people’s first encounter with the
environment is often in one’s home city or town rather
than in distant places [14]. The lack of established and
zoned green space is a factor of urban sprawl as people
move to the edge of a city to be closer to the rural setting
that feels like a healthier environment [14]. To meet so-
cio-economic, environmental, psychological needs of
urban dwellers, there should develop some criterion
based on the attitudes of perceived user to shape ade-
quate uses of land and provide facilities within urban
green spaces in cities [15]. Planning authorities were
advised to adopt a strategic approach and plan positively
for providing green spaces. This was to provide strong
protection for existing ones, resist new development op-
portunities which might diminish recreational provision,
ensure accessibility, and to provide good quality green
spaces and recreational facilities [16]
3.2. Quantitative Aspects of Urban Green Spaces
Understanding relation ship between the urban pop ulation
and the amount of green spaces is particularly important
in evaluating their functionality, and of course future
planning for their provision. Commonly used terms to
refer to the quantity of green spaces are green space ratio,
green space coverage and green space area per capita
[17]. It is very difficult to measure the appropriate
amount of required land and allocation of land and cal-
culate distance from residential area and especially to
implement the measurement on building up urban green
spaces with proper services in the highly populated
countries. Ta ble 1 shows the standards of minimum sizes
of various types of green spaces in urban areas [4].
A study on 26 cities from 15 European countries con-
siders four groups of the 26 cities, according to their
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JEP
Urban Green Spaces and an Integrative Approach to Sustainable Environment
population size, such as Metropolis, Big Cities, Me-
dium-Sized Cities and Small Cities [2]. To understand
the availability of urban green spaces in Europe, the
study conducts factor analysis by considering the factors-
“mixed land use” (such as residential areas, industrial
areas, forest and agricultural areas); “man-made envi-
ronment” (such as built-up area and urban green areas);
and water [2]. And the study finds that metropolis has a
high score on man-made environment which includes
built-up area and urban green [2]. Considering the four
groups of variables such as urban green areas, forests,
agricultural areas and water, another factor analysis
shows the two categories of cities included in the study-
“Natural Green Areas” (N) (such as forest and agricul-
tural are a s) and “U rb an G re en A r e as” ( U) ( su ch a s urb a n
green and water). Finally, the study concludes that the
metropolis and the big cities have a high score on the
urban green factor [2]. Because the cities are old, the
cities have a high population density and the cities have a
loss of natural areas and natural resources. In addition,
medium-sized cities have a relatively high score on the
natural green factor due to the availability of natural
green areas [2].
However, the study suggests investing more in urban
green spaces in metropolis cities and less invest in urban
green spaces in medium-sized cities [2]. But it is impor-
tant to preserve the green areas either urban green or
natural green. To confirm the conservation and to im-
prove the better quality of urban green spaces or natural
green spaces, appropriate measurements, monitoring,
planning, management based on participatory and inte-
grative approach is very essential in cities in developed
countries and most importantly in cities in developing
country. Table 2 shows the availability of natural and
urban green s p a ces.
As most cities, especially in developing world con-
tinue to grow in population there is seemingly continued
decrease in urban space at the expense of built up areas.
Despite the trend, studies show that people are willing to
pay high prices for green spaces increment [18]. Urban
Table 1. Minimum standards for urban gr een spaces.
Functional level Maximum diatance
from home (m) Minimum
surface (ha)
green 150
green 400 1
Quarter green 800 10 (park: 5 ha)
District green 1600 30 (park: 10 ha)
City green 3200 60
>200 (smaller towns)
Urban forest 5000 >300 (big cities)
Source: Herzele and Wiedemann, 2 003.
park movement was created with an objective of in-
creasing the city life quality of the industrial revolution
era. The movement saw creation of massive green spaces,
particularly urban parks such as central park of New
York City, the Amsterdam’s Bos Park, City park of porto,
in developed countries [12].
Distance or walking time from home has appeared to
be the single most important precondition for use of
green spaces [4]. People in close proximity to a green
space use it more frequently. Studies have shown that the
location and distribution of green spaces in the city in-
fluences people participation. A study in Helsinki,
Finland, showed that a good amount of green areas and
easy access (i.e. short distance) to a recreational space
increase the number of visits and people living close
(<0.5 km) visited the green spaces more frequently (>4
times per week) [6]. For instance, a study in Swedish
cities showed that in overall, people with immediate ac-
cess to fine and verdant gardens or green yards are also
more likely to visit public green spaces. Indeed, those
wit h gard ens of their own also spend more time in public
green spaces than those without a garden of their own [5].
Public green space should be at the centre of
neighbourhood and not more than five minutes walk for
most residents, public buildings or shops [19]. Therefore,
accessibility and proximity are very important factors to
consider during planning and design of an urban green
space. The distance one walks or cycles should be ade-
quately short as well as with limited obstructions along
the trip. As such, some countries have set up recommen-
dations for the provision of accessible green spaces. For
instance, Britain has standards such as an accessible
natural green space less than 300 metres from homes;
statutory local nature reserves provided at a minimum
level of 1 hectare per thousand populations, at least one
accessible 20 hectare site within 2 kilometres of home;
one accessible 100 hectare site within 5 kilometres of
home and one accessible 500 hectare site within 10 kilo-
metres of home [20].
3.3. Qualitative Aspects of Urban Green Spaces
The evaluation of recreational green spaces has to be
centred on the variety of qualities available, sufficiently
satisfying and interesting place to encourage people to
stay and enjoy being there [4]. A study conducted in
western Colorado showed that people enjoy varied
physical and social opportunities in green spaces. The
benefits people desire can directly be linked to a particu-
lar recreational activity and to physical, social and man-
agement setting characteristics. Most people cited getting
away from daily demands of life and relieving stress as
the reason for visiting green spaces [21].
opyright © 2011 SciRes. JEP
Urban Green Spaces and an Integrative Approach to Sustainable Environment
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. JEP
Table 2. Availability of natural and urban green in European cities.
Metropoles Population:
1.000.000 + Big Cities Population:
500.000 - 1.000.000 Medium-Sized Cities Population:
100.000 - 50 0 .000 Small Cities
Population: 100.000
Berlin (U) Birmingham (U) Antwerp Leipzig (N) Alphen aan de Rijn
Budapest (U) Cracovia (N) Bern Montpellier Freiberg
Istanbul (N) Genoa Chemnitz (N) Salzburg Gorlitz
Vienna (U) Helsinki (U) Dresden (N) Sarajevo
Warsaw (U) Lodz (N) Edinburgh (U) Tallinn
Turin Espoo (U) Zurich
U: Urban Green N: Natural Green; Source: Tuzin and others, 2002.
Planning urban green spaces requires the designer’s
views and the users’ views integration. For instance, a
study in Madina town showed that the highest number of
users (71%) wants grass/ turf and the highest number of
users (84%) wants evergreen plants in their green spaces
[22]. That indicates that during the planning and man-
agement process, a consideration of users’ perception
should be considered. If the urban green spaces devel-
opment strategies fail to include stakeholders’ participa-
tion, which will be the reflection of the neglect of social
and environmental functions [15]. A study in Ankara city,
Turkey shows that the green space users’ preference are
such as sitting on bench, walking and running facilities,
pleasant landscape, visual elements, nearness to water
and peaceful atmosphere [3]. In the pursuit of creating a
quality green space, the standards should be set locally,
to accommodate activities and future changes. Public
participation in the planning and design process is very
important to incorporate their values and pattern of life in
the process [3].
4. Urban Green Spaces and Integrative
4.1. Integrative Approach
There is still debate regarding the approaches which will
be best fitted to analyze and explain pro blems like social,
economic, and environmental so on. However, in recent
times, studies try to incorporate integrative approach to
figure out complexities, underlying mechanism, and pro-
vide comprehensive and effective better solutions with
newly raised issues such as environmental sustainability,
climate change adaptation, environmental conservation
and importance of urban green spaces especially in deve-
loping countries. Before going to relate the use of inte-
grative approach in the challenges of urban green spaces,
the meaning of integrative appro ach is needed to define.
Integrative studies as projects that are either interdis-
ciplinary o r tran sdiscip lina ry, in tha t new kn o wled g e and
theory emerges from the integration of disciplinary
knowledge. With the expression of integrative research
we summarize interdisciplinary and tra nsdisciplinary re-
search efforts [23].
In integrative research, academic participants such as
researchers and nonacademic participants like societal
actors-policy makers, representatives of administration or
interest groups, locals or the broader public are involved
[23] which is shown in Figure 1, two types of ac-
tors—researchers and non- academic participants—can
cooperate in different ways in integrative research. First,
researchers from one discipline cooperate with research-
ers from other disciplines, which can be multidisciplinary
or interdisciplinary, depending on whether integration is
aimed at or not. Second, researchers from one discipline
can cooperate with societal actors, which can be partici-
patory. Also here, integr ation is not th e aim but ex change.
Third, research- ers from several disciplines can cooper-
ate with societal actors, which can be either participatory
or transdisciplinary, again depending on whether the
project aims at integration of knowledge or exchange
Briefly, we can say that different kinds of knowledge
come together to answering a research question using
different kinds of approaches. Though, social sciences,
humanities, physical sciences and medical sciences use
their own approaches to produce knowledge and analyze
data, and there still exists a deb ate between q ualitative vs .
quantitative analysis for data validation and exploitation.
Figure 1. Level of Integration. Source: Tress, Tress and Fry,
Urban Green Spaces and an Integrative Approach to Sustainable Environment
But in integrative research, the research questions or pro-
blems will be derived and articulated jo intly where stake-
holders will participate and have an endeavo ur to answer
research questions from different disciplinary approaches
without depending on a single or particular aspect. And
there will be a high integration using the transdiscipli-
nary and interdisciplinary approaches to find solution of
a problem like challenges of urban green spaces, climate
change, and enviro nmental sustainability.
4.2. Integrative Approach and Environmental
The quality of cities depends on how the urban green
spaces are designed, managed and protected. The man-
agement, planning, design, policy implementation of
urban green spaces as the key discussion issues of sus-
tainable environment are highly integrated and incorpo-
rated into the sustainable development at local and global
level [2]. Urban green spaces not only play role to envi-
ronment but also it contributes to social, economic, rec-
reation, cultural, visual aspects and commercial devel-
opments in cities.
The social aspects of urban green spaces include di-
versity of land uses, contribution to health and active life
styles in cities, social justice by incorporating all groups
and ages of people into green spaces, opportunities to
interact and expand social network [24], enhancement of
cultural life for different communities living in the city
by providing a platform to share views, feelings and to
celebrate different groups occasions and, a venue for
environmental education for the schoolchildren [2] and a
play ground for children [25] for the social, mental and
physical development. From the planning aspects, urban
green spaces include business, retail, leisure development,
tourism development; employment centers besides resi-
dential areas [24] and the good planning of urban green
spaces can play a role as a visual screen, a function of
noise protection and a place for commuting and recrea-
tion by providing well-designed networks within the park
and with the other areas [26]. The economic aspects of
urban green spaces incorporate- as a place for production
and supply of fruits, wood to green business centers, and
as a place for new jobs creation and increasing economic
value of the area by integrating the environment friendly
behavior and attracting tourists provided with conven ient
atmosphere, security and facilities for the tourists [2].
Most importantly the ecological perspective considers
urban green spaces as a facilitator to reduce the impact of
human activities through absorbing pollutants and re-
leasing oxygen [27]; contributing to the maintenance of a
healthy urban environment with clean air, water and soil
[27] and preserving the local natural and cultural heritage
with a diversity of urban wildlife and urban resources
In the pursuit to establish environmental sustainability
and sustainable management of urban green spaces, the
local authorities shou ld maintain a database of actu al and
potential green spaces graded according to landscape and
ecological values. This would help in developing a man-
agement plan [28]. A conservation plan should be pre-
pared to protect the urban green spaces enclaves from
intrusion by other land uses and to ensure that the natural
ingredients of flora, fauna, landforms, soil and water
continue to flourish. Urban green spaces management
plans should be in place early before the inception of the
design process. When considering the cost of developing
a green space, one should keep in mind this direct rela-
tionship; if you build it, you must maintain it [29].
5. Conclusions
Urban green spaces fulfil many functions in urban con-
text that benefits people’s quality of life. There is there-
fore a broad consensus about the importance and value of
urban green spaces in cities towards planning and con-
structing sustainable or eco-cities of 21st century. Stead-
ily growing traffic and urban heat, especially in the de-
veloping countries is not only damaging the environment
but also incur social and economic costs. The ecological
benefits bestowed in green spaces which range from pro-
tecting and maintain ing the biodiversity to helping in the
mitigation of change cannot be overlooked in today’s
sustainable planning. Inner-city green spaces are espe-
cially important for improving air quality though uptake
of pollutant gases and particulates which are responsible
for respiratory infections. Green spaces also help in re-
duction of the energy costs of cooling buildings effec-
tively. Furthermore, due to their amenity and aesthetic,
green spaces increase property value. However, the most
sought benefits of green spaces in a city are the social
and psychological benefits. Urban green spaces, espe-
cially public parks and gardens provide resources for
relaxation and recreation. Ideally this helps in emotional
healing (therapeutic) and physical relaxation.
In order to meet social and psychological needs of
citizens satisfactorily, green spaces in the city should be
easily accessible and in adequately optimal in quality and
quantity. Green spaces need to be uniformly distributed
throughout the city area, and the total area occupied by
green spaces in the city should be large enough to ac-
commodate the city population needs. Cities are respon-
sible for most of the consumption of the world’s re-
sources and are home to most of the world’s citizens as
well. Bringing green space to the urban landscape can
promote and inspire a better relationship with the envi-
ronment while supporting important services. Green
space is part of and also represents habitats and ecosys-
opyright © 2011 SciRes. JEP
Urban Green Spaces and an Integrative Approach to Sustainable Environment607
tems. The promotion and conservation of green space in
cities is in the hands of local and regional authorities.
Integrative approach should not be discussed only in
writings as a source of contributing instrument to envi-
ronmental sustainability, but it is also important th at how
it could be fostered in developing countries in different
social settings in which deffrent economic, political and
cultural factors influence. And there are many intermedi-
ary factors such as lack of investment, proper manage-
ment, designing an appropriate planning and puplic pol-
icy, and political instability, social values, economic cir-
cumstances influence to how and what extent the appli-
cation of integrative approach in developing countries
can contribute to environmental sustainability. Scientific
and technological development of a country is both de-
pendent on social context and political [30]. In this re-
gard, integr ative research with incorpor ation of participa-
tion from different level stakeholders i.e. academic and
non-academic is essential to foster sustainable develop-
ment in the context of challenges toward urban green
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