D. Amarsaikhan et al.
• Abolishing of small scale boilers for heating;
• Promotion of public transportation;
• Encouragement of vehicle restriction through license plate numbers;
• Inspection and elimination of older and too old vehicles;
• Transfer of garbage/waste burning factories to eastern part of the city.
The aim of this study was to highlight the trend of air pollution and pollution sources in Ulaanbaatar city, Mon-
golia and conduct some air pollution analyses. It was seen that among many factors, smog of ger districts, motor
vehicles and power plants produced majority of air pollution. As seen from the analyses, besides many influen-
cing factors, geographic location and topography of the capital city played a major role for the air pollution
keeping. Because, a layer of cooler air was trapped near the ground by a layer of warmer air above, which was
not allowing for any dispersion of pollutants. In such a case, normal air mixing almost ceased and pollutants
were trapped in the lower layer. In addition, as part of the research, some suggestions for pollution reduction
Amarsaikhan, D. (2011). Applications of Advanced Technology for Combating Land Degradation and Desertification in
Mongolia. In Proceedings of the International Science Council of Asia Conference (pp. 12-27 ). Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.
Amarsaikhan, D., Bat-Erdene, Ts., Ganzorig, M., & Nergui, B. (2013). Applications of Remote Sensing Techniques and GIS
for Urban Land Change Studies in Mongolia. American Journal of GIS, 2, 27-36.
Davy, P. K., Gunchin, G., & Markwitz, A. (2011). Air Particulate Matter Pollution in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia: Determination
of Composition, Source Contributions and Source Locations. Atmospheric Pollution Research, 2, 126-137.
Enhmaa, S., & Toru, T. (2013). Sources Inventory and Distribution Modeling. In Capacity Strengthening in Air Pollution
Monitoring of Ulaanbaatar City, Mongolia (pp. 1-12 ). JICA Project Report, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.
Guttikunda, S. (2007). Urban Air Pollution Analysis for Ulaanbaatar. The World Bank Consultant Report (pp. 1-132).
Washington DC, USA.
Guttikunda, S., Lodoisamba, S., Bulgansaikhan, B., & Dashdondog, B. (2013). Particulate Pollution in Ulaanbaatar, Mongo-
lia. Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health, 6, 589 -601. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11869-013-0198-7
National Statistical Office of Mongolia (2013 ). Mongolian Statistical Year Book. Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia: National Statistical
Office of Mongolia.
Ryan, A. W., Gombojav, E., Barkhasragchaa, B., Byambaa, T., Lkhasuren, O., Amram, O., Takaro, K., & Janes, R. (2013).
An Assessment of Air Pollution and Its Attributable Mortality in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Air Quality, Atmosphere &
Health, 6, 137-15 0. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11869-011-0154-3