Journal of Software Engineering and Applications, 2013, 6, 34-40 Published Online September 2013 (
New Theoretical Aspects of Software Engineering for
Development Applications and E-Learning
Ekaterina Lavrischeva1*, Alexei Ostrovski2
1Department of Software Engineering, Institute of Software Systems, Kiev, Ukraine; 2Institute of Cybernetics, Kiev, Ukraine.
Email: *,
Received July 29th, 2013; revised August 28th, 2013; accepted September 4th, 2013
Copyright © 2013 Ekaterina Lavrischeva, Alexei Ostrovski. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons
Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is
properly cited.
This paper presents new theoretical aspects of software engineering which oriented on product lines for building applied
systems and software product families from readymade reusable components in conditions of program factories. These
aspects are the new disciplines such as the theory of component programming; models variability and interoperability of
system; theory for building systems and product families from components. Principles and methods of implementing
these theories were realized in the instrumental and technological complex by lines of component development: assem-
bling program factories using lines, e-learning to new theories and technologies in textbook of “Software Engineering”
by the universities students.
Keywords: Software Engineering; Theory; Disciplines; Technologies; Interoperability; Applied Systems; Software
Industry; Fabrics; E-Learning
1. Introduction
The “Software Engineering” learning course is ratified
by the cabinet council of Ukraine in December 2006. The
program of the course was created on the basis of Cur-
ricula-2001 and 2004, SWEBOK-2001 and develop-
ments at the Software Engineering Department, Institute
of Software Systems of Ukraine. On subject of SE there
were executed more than ten NAN fundamental projects
and several applied projects. The author, Prof. E. Lavri-
scheva, gives lectures on subject of programming tech-
nology (programming languages, compilers, program-
ming automation systems, applied systems, OOP, UML,
reusability, component programming, etc.) at Taras She-
vchenko Kiev National University.
The main direction of researches in SE department
currently is the industry of applied systems and SPFs
from reusable components. The training course on SE for
students of KNU and Kiev Branch of Moscow Institute
of Physics and Technology (MIPT) contains new sub-
jects which are connected with system software in opera-
tional environments (IBM, Apple, CORBA, Java) and
methods of industrial manufacturing of software products
(technological and product lines, methods of conveyor
assembly on these lines, interaction, quality, etc.). As a
result, a new theoretical foundation of SE disciplines for
producing applied systems from readymade components
was developed [1-5].
In this article, a new point of view on separate theore-
tical and technological aspects of disciplines of software
product industry is elaborated, as well as approaches to
teach these aspects within the training course on SE us-
ing program factories and web sites.
2. New Disciplines in Product Industry
The main principles of SE are productivity, industry and
quality, according to the corresponding body of knowl-
edge-SWEBOK, which was developed in 1999-2004 by
the international committee, formed by ACM and IEEE.
SE is connected with the following disciplines: Com-
puter Science, electronic engineering, mathematics, tele-
communication and nets, cognitive sciences and so on.
SE establishes relations with these sciences and inte-
grated the principles and ground of fundamental sciences
such as [1,4,6]:
The theory of algorithms, which encompasses normal
algorithms, computing function, Turing machines, algo-
rithmic algebras, model of algorithms and programs,
*Corresponding author.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. JSEA
New Theoretical Aspects of Software Engineering for Development Applications and E-Learning 35
The mathematical logic—rules of logical calculi and
propositions promoting formal definitions of theory
correct conclusion and logical-algebraic specification
of programs;
A set theory—quantifiers of general existence and op-
erations over sets that are used for formal representa-
tion of axioms and theorems for various collection of
software objects;
The management theory—principles, methods and ge-
neral laws of planning and control to obtaining and
process information in cybernetic, organization and
administrative systems;
A Proof theory—mathematical inferences of theorems
about programs with the help of axioms and state-
ments, consistency theory, the theories of algorithmi-
cally problems and verification by Dijkstra, Hoare, and
Wirth and so on;
The theory of classification mathematical and infor-
mational object and programs, etc.
Ten areas of SWEBOK knowledge have the two direc-
Development: requirement engineering, designing ar-
chitecture, developing programs, testing and maintaining
Management: managing project, configuration, quality,
methods and means of SE.
These areas knowledge correspond to the lifecycle
processes of ISO/IEC 12207-1996, 2007 standard.
Definition 1. Software engineering is a system of me-
thods, techniques and disciplines of planning, develop-
ment, maintenance and exploitation of software that can
be mass-produced. This definition covers all the aspects of
the creation of software beginning with the formulation
of requirements, development of a product and its main-
tenance and ending with its removal from exploitation.
Body of SWEBOK is oriented towards software objects
and provides means for software development of multi-
purpose applied systems and informational systems. It
does not, however, introduce target objects (AS, SPF,
domains, etc.) and technologies for their development.
According to the approach towards teaching computer
sciences in the United States, software engineering plays
a prominent role in the informational disciplines (Figure
1). The area of software engineering comprises the entire
hardware level, as well as technological and organiza-
tional levels of informational sciences. As a discipline,
software engineering covers systematic software devel-
opment of software system families, domains, and other
scalable software projects. The main goal of software en-
gineering is developing systematic models, reusable ready-
made components, and reliable methods for producing
high-quality software products. This goal encompasses
theories, concepts, and paradigms, including both develop-
ment structures for reliable software systems and man-
agement aspects of the designing process to meet cus-
tomers’ needs.
We proposed a new classification of SE disciplines
(Figure 1), which is necessary in industrial production of
applied systems and SPFs [1,2,6]:
Home Publications Learning Repository Contacts Link
Searching for RC Select Platform
All Platforms
Select OS
All Platforms
Searching for manuals
Searching for publications
Select Manual (if necessary)
All Books
Select category (if necessary)
All category
Input text for Searching
Home Literature
“Software Engineering” Manual
Author: Lavryscheva Katerina Myhailovna
Generic Line f or p ar ticular programs production in MS.NET
An Example of student’s program with the Line
Software Products sertifying for storing them in Repository
Assembling wit h Conveyor
Line for Software Products Assembling from RCs and Processes
Software Product Line
You may ask questions
Recent Reusable Components (RC)
Shingles algorithm
Dzubenko Artem
Aronov Andriy
Moxiecode System
Dzubenko Artem
Recent Books
The List of Standards.
“Software Engineering” Manual
The Glossary of Terms.
“Software Engineering” Manual
“Software Engineering” Manual
Figure 1. Classification of SE disciplines.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. JSEA
Current Distortion Evaluation in Traction 4Q Constant Switching Frequency Converters
Scientific discipline consists of the classic sciences
(theory of algorithms, set theory, logic theory, proofs,
and so on), lifecycle models, fundamentals data types,
theory of integration and interface, theory of program-
ming and the corresponding language tools for creat-
ing abstract models and architectures of the specified
objects, etc.
Engineering discipline is a set of technical means and
methods for software development by using standard
lifecycle models; software analysis methods; require-
ment, application and domain engineering with the
help of product lines; software support, modification
and adaptation to other platforms and environments.
Management discipline contains the generic manage-
ment theory, adapted to team-based software devel-
opment, including job schedules and their supervis-
ing, risk management, software versioning and sup-
Economy discipline is a collection of the expert, quail-
tative and quantitative evaluation techniques of the
interim artifacts and the final result of product lines,
and the economic methods of calculating duration,
size, efforts, and cost of software development.
Product discipline consists of product lines, utilizing
software resources (reusable components, services,
aspects, agents, and so on), taken from libraries and
software repositories; it also contains assembling, con-
figuring and assessing quality of software.
The disciplines of scientifically and engineering rec-
ommended for students training from the second courses,
and disciplines management, economies and production
will be learning from magister and aspirant courses. These
specialists knowledge will be used in developing product
lines for building AS and SPF from RC and estimating
quality of software products [1,2,5-7].
2.1. Scientific Discipline
Theory of programming is a set of methods, languages,
means of description (specification) and design of target
objects and methods of their proof, verification, and
resting. Methods of programming in SE include [8]:
Theoretical (algebraic, algorithmic, logical etc.) and
applied (object, component, agents aspects, etc.) tools
intended for designing different types of target objects;
Methods of program verification with the help of for-
mal (assertion, inherence, and proof) procedures of
OOP, UML, VDM and so on;
Methods of estimation of the results design from
analysis environment to programming and estimation
characteristic quality (reliability, accuracy, function-
ality, etc.) of finished products.
Besides these theories, we proposed the new scientific
results of the long-term research and development:
Concept of formal definition for reusable components,
applied systems and software product families as tar-
get objects for production methodology;
Component-based methods for the formal design of
applied systems, and adapting this theory as evolu-
tionary generative programming [6,7];
A new model of variability and methods for manage-
ment process for applied systems within SPFs [8];
Interoperability between programs, systems, and en-
vironments [9-11].
It is necessary not only to improve theoretical level of
students’ qualification on software engineering, but also
to teach them the new concepts, ideas and facilities, which
had substantial influence on development of industrial
production of applied systems.
Scientific discipline is a basic course of teaching in
Universities, related to informatics and computer science.
This course, per se, is theoretical, and must be supported
by some courses on systematic programming (object-
oriented, component-based, service-based, etc.) and ad-
ditional courses from the Curricula-2004 program.
2.2. Engineering Discipline
Engineering discipline is defined as a set of engineering
tools and standards oriented towards making target AS
objects using the scientific discipline [2,6]. The basic
means of this discipline are as the follows:
Standards for software lifecycle (ISO/IEC 12207,)
assessment (ISO/IEC 15504), etc.;
Engineering reusable components, applications and
Generic system tools and instrumental environments
for software product development.
Engineering discipline contains the following basic
Developing product lines from repository components
and services;
Developing AS from multi-language components
using application and domain engineering [5];
Methods and means for supplying correctness (V&V);
assessing system parameters (quality, cost, capacity)
and configuring AS from reusable components [2].
The core notion for engineering discipline is that of
product lines. Product line and product family are de-
fined in the ISO/IEC FDIS 24765:2009(E)—Systems and
SE Vocabulary as “a group of products or services hav-
ing the common manageable set of properties which
meets the requirements of a certain market segment”
Models for representing processes of software devel-
opment, according to Software Engineering Institute (SEI),
are the engineering and the process model.
The engineering model is created at SEI and corre-
sponds to the three-step production: developing reusable
components; merging them into software systems; man-
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. JSEA
New Theoretical Aspects of Software Engineering for Development Applications and E-Learning 37
aging components.
The development process encompasses defining SPF
domain, designing the manufacturing process for a set of
components, allowing for its context of use, restrictions
and production strategy. The merge process includes
designing implementations of each software system on
the base of the manufactured resources and components.
The management process is oriented towards processes’
The process model sorts out a set of processes that run
on the two levels: domain engineering level, which is
also referred to as the development “for reuse”, and soft-
ware systems’ engineering level, referred to as the de-
velopment “with reuse”. Assembly lines use ready-made
components, which improve the time of development and
are able to support the whole manufacturing cycle ac-
cording to the specific requirements and needs.
Product lines for manufacturing experimental target
object elements are developed using the instrumental and
technological complex (ITC) [11] developed by authors.
The ITC is represented with a web site (http://sestudy., oriented on developing reliable and inter-
operable components, systems, and SPFs for modern en-
2.3. Engineering Discipline
The site in question was developed as a collection of
tools for SE and at the same time was displayed during
lectures on SE at Kiev National University [13]. This
drove authors to orient the complex towards teaching stu-
dents and graduate students the basics of SE, includ ing
various tools and means of its support, along the follow-
ing aspects:
Developing programs, reusable components, and ser-
vices in the repository;
Generating components and domains with subject-
oriented languages like DSL;
Assembling software products and their families from
software resources and components.
Taking the above into account, we have chosen a stra-
tegy of teaching various aspects of industry-compliant
SE. In order to gradually and consistently implement this
strategy within the ITC, we utilized the Internet-based
methods and modern programming systems that support
different aspects of software development, namely:
Protégé system to model object domains;
Eclipse as a tool to embed different programming and
system components into the ITC by using its plug-ins;
Microsoft Visual Studio as a multifunctional tool to
organize team development of the new systems, in-
cluding developing software via Internet using PL,
OOP, UML, and cloud computing frameworks (Azure,
Amazon, etc.).
CORBA system that has a universal broker providing
interoperability between programs, written in different
PL by using stub/skeleton mechanism.
New subject-oriented DSL tools for designing do-
mains, systems, SPFs and for implementing DSL-
based descriptions (Eclipse-DSL, Microsoft DSL Tools,
and others).
The start page of the web site features a list of imple-
mented sections and subsections concerning SE. The sec-
tions in question are: Main Page, Technologies, Interop-
erability, Tools, Presentations, and Learning.
Each section contains subsections with keywords that
specify the names of product lines (10 altogether). All
sections and subsections include standardized pages,
such as an overall theoretical description, an example
that illustrates the concerned topic (developed with one
of the workbench programming environments, in most
cases), a thorough description of the example, and so on.
Employees of the SE department and students of KNU
and MIPT in course of writing their thematic and gradu-
ate papers implemented the web site and several product
lines of software development on the basic of RC and
components. Particularly, they have developed an experi-
mental program factory [13], software means of variabil-
ity and interoperability support between programs and
systems, a domain description in DSL, Protégé, and so
2.4. Economic Discipline
The economy of software engineering is an independent
SE discipline, connected with economic aspects of AS
industry. It is based on economic calculations of different
aspects of activity within a project, with allowance made
for knowledge of all economic factors and current ex-
penditures in the project [1,2].
The discipline contains theory and practice of solving
problems on the examination of a project, cost estimation,
assessment quality specified in the requirements on the
system. Economic discipline provides estimation of re-
quirements, design solutions, architectures, and devel-
opment risks connected with available material and hu-
man resources, quality indices of the AS, and also finan-
cial calculations with each executor at all stages of con-
The discipline in question is mostly developed from
the viewpoint of methods of economic calculations in SE.
It includes size prediction methodologies for AS (func-
tion points analysis, feature points, mark-II function points,
3D function points, etc.), estimation of labor expendi-
tures for system development with the help of the family
of COCOMO models, and several other mathematical
models for estimation of labor expenditures (Angel, Slim,
Seer-SEM, etc.), as well as models connecting economic
indices of AS with quality characteristics [5,9,14,15].
In forming this discipline, fundamental economic me-
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. JSEA
New Theoretical Aspects of Software Engineering for Development Applications and E-Learning
thods should be used that are related to the principles of
distribution and examination of jobs in complex systems,
methods of cost estimation for separate parts of a system
depending on the size of its component parts and the cost
of the system as a whole, existing standards providing
the estimation and certification of finished products, etc.
A systematized and scientifically grounded course of
the economic discipline of SE will eliminate the gap that
exists in SE and is caused by the absence of the corre-
sponding manuals and textbooks for teaching specialists
who will be engaged in solving economic problems in
the industrial cycle of AS production.
2.5. Management Discipline
The basis of this discipline consists of the classical man-
agement theory, production management and the stan-
dard PMBOK (Project Management Body of Knowledge)
(IEEE Std.1490-2003) [1,2]. In this standard, control pro-
cesses of a project and fundamental knowledge do-
mains grouped around problems such as initiation, plan-
ning, monitoring, management, and completion are speci-
fied. The main domain of PMBOK is integration that
includes the conception of management of organizational
activity of the team of executors of a project. It is based
on methods of making decision on resources, general
design problems, correctness check services of a project,
and provision of the project cost specified by the cus-
These developed basic management and planning theo-
ries, standard principles of PMBOK, the series of ISO
9001 standards regulating quality management, and the
corresponding methodical project support must become
the basis of the management discipline in SE. In higher
schools, a curriculum on this discipline with the use of
management theory will provide the preparation of highly
skilled project managers and other specialists in the field
of organizational management for software development.
2.6. Product Discipline
There are multiple approaches to SPF industry:
Assembly conveyor by academician V. M. Glushkov
from readymade modules (1975);
Conveyor by K. Czarnecki and U. Eisenecker [1];
Software factories of assembling applications by J.
Greenfild, K. Short et al.;
Continuous integration by Martin Fowler [3];
EPAM assembly line (Belarus) for building various
types of software, improving software quality and re-
ducing risk;
Compositional programming by E. Lavrischeva for
developing software products from reusable compo-
nents, services, artifacts, and so on [5,9,13-18].
The notion of assembly conveyor by Glushkov has
been developed for many years; nowadays the experi-
mental program factory based on product lines for reus-
able components has been created at Kiev National Uni-
versity [14-18]. Interfaces of these components contain
the standardized description in certain programming lan-
guages (PL), as well as the communication interface to
enable interoperability with other objects.
3. Textbook of Software Engineering
Teaching students the aspects of software industry at
Ukrainian universities is currently at its initial stage. To
solve some education problems, a new approach to e-
learning students some aspects of SE, oriented on assem-
bling heterogeneous components using product lines and
e-learning SE disciplines, has been introduced [2,3,14-
The textbook is meant for teaching high school stu-
dent’s development and management disciplines of SE.
The main idea of the textbook is development of domains,
applied systems and software families with reusable
components and product lines [2].
The textbook is available in three languages (Russian
version is hosted on, Ukrainian and
English versions are available on
net). The book is meant for students, magistrates and
aspirants, which are specialized on department of com-
puter science and informatics. Each area of knowledge
covered by the textbook contains an overall description,
questions and literature for further study. During study-
ing these areas, students may access examples on the ITC
web site— (Figure 2)
and other tools [13-18].
Besides that they may elaborate new concepts and ar-
tifacts and present them in a work or put on the afore-
mentioned web site.
4. Conclusions
Software engineering disciplines regarding theoretical
and industrial aspects of AS development are elaborated:
Essentials of SE disciplines and concepts for assem-
bling software product families from reusable com-
Concepts of product lines for producing AS using con-
veyor principles;
New models of interoperability and assembling com-
ponents in systems;
Configuring components within systems for work in
ITC environment;
Ontology representation of knowledge on new SE dis-
ciplines on the web site;
Lines (1-4) for the components development and as-
sembling them into complex programs systems;
Ontologies of Life Cycle standard ISO/IEC 12207-
2007 and General Data Types of standard ISO/IEC
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. JSEA
New Theoretical Aspects of Software Engineering for Development Applications and E-Learning
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. JSEA
Figure 2. Classification of SE disciplines.
11404-2007 for generation the new special processes
and data types of PL;
The e-learning textbook on software engineering
[1] E. Lavrischeva, “Classification of Software Engineering
Disciplines,” Cybernetics and Systems Analysis, Vol. 44,
No. 6, 2008, pp. 791-796.
[2] E. Lavrischeva, “Software Engineering (in Ukrainian),”
Akademperiodika, Kiev, 2008, 319 p.
[3] Е. Lavrischeva and V. Petruchin, “Methods and Means of
Software Engineering,” 2007. and
[4] E. Lavrischeva, “Concept of Scientific Software Industry
and Approach to Calculation of Scientific Problems (in
Ukrainian),” Problems in Programming, Vol. 1, 2011, pp.
[5] E. Lavrischeva, G. Koval, L. Babenko, O. Slabospitska
and P. Ignatenko, “New Theoretical Foundations of Pro-
duction Methods of Software Systems in Generative Pro-
gramming Context,” UK-2011, Іsoftware Institute NANY,
2011. 277 p.
[6] E. Lavrischeva, V. Grischenko, “Assembly Programming.
Basics of Software Industry (in Russian),” 2nd Edition,
Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 2009, 371 p.
[7] E. Lavrischeva, “Formation and Development of the
Modular-Component Software Engineering in Ukraine (in
Russian),” Akademperiodika, Kiev, 2008.
[8] E. Lavrischeva, “Problem of Interoperability between
Heterogeneous Objects, Components, and Systems. Ap-
proach to Solve It,” Proceedings of 7th International
Programming Conference onUkrProg ‘2010”, 2010, pp.
[9] E. Lavrischeva, “Instrumental and Technological Complex
for Developing and Learning Aspects of Software System
Development (in Ukrainian),” Bulletin of NAS of Ukraine,
Vol. 3, 2012, pp. 17-27.
[10] A. Ostrovski, “Approach to Interconnection Support be-
tween Java and MS.NET Programming Environments (in
Russian),” Problems in Programming, Vol. 2, 2011, pp.
[11] I. Radetskyi, “One of Approaches to Maintenance inter-
connection Environments Visual Studio and Eclipse (in
Ukrainian),” Problems in Programming, Vol. 2, 2011, pp.
[12] K. Pohl, G. Böckle and F. J. Linden, “Software Product
Line Engineering: Foundations, Principles and Techni-
ques,” Springer-Verlag, New York, 2005.
[13] K. M.Lavrischeva, “Theory and Practice of Software
Factories,” Springer, New York, 2011, pp. 961-972
[14] A. Aronov and A. Dzubenko, “Approach to Development
of the Students’ Program Factory (in Ukrainian),” Prob-
lems in Programming, Vol. 3, 2011, pp. 42-49.
[15] P. Andon, G. Koval, T. Korotun, E. Lavrischeva and V.
Suslov, “Foundation of Software Systems Quality Engi-
neering (in Ukrainian),” 2nd Edition, Akademperiodika,
Kiev, 2007.
[16] E. Lavrischeva, A. Ostrovski and I. Radetskyi, “Approach
to E-Learning Fundamental Aspects of Software Engi-
neering,” Proceedings of ICTERI-2012: ICT in Education,
Research and Industrial Applications, 2012, pp. 176-187.
[17] A. Kolesnyk and O. Clabospitskaya, “Tested Approach for
New Theoretical Aspects of Software Engineering for Development Applications and E-Learning
Variability Management Enhancing in Software Product
Line,” Conference ICTERI-12.
[18] E. Lavrischeva, A. Dzubenko and A. Aronov, “Conception
of Programs Factory for Representation and E-Learning
Disciplines of Software Engineering,” 9th International
Conference ICTERI, ICT in Education, Research and
Industrial Applications, Integration, Harmonization and
Knowledge Transfer, Ukraine, June 17-21, 2013.
About Authors
Katerina Lavrischeva, (E.М.) Dr. Sci. (Phys.-Math.),
prof. (1989), first in USSR led the “Software Engineer-
ing” department (1980). Her scientific works in SE are
known in Ukraine, CIS and journals of foreign countries.
She elaborates the new concepts and methods technolo-
gies development of systems and programs from ready
components by compositions. She has 8 monografies and
3 textbooks on tecnologies of programming and SE for
software industry. She studies students of Kiev National
University to this task from 1976 and to day of e-text-book.
Alexei Ostrovski, Graduate Student of Institute of Cy-
bernetics National Academia Sciences Ukraine from
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. JSEA