Journal of Modern Physics, 2012, 3, 762-773 Published Online August 2012 (
On the Absence of Carrier Drift in Two-Terminal Devices
and the Origin of Their Lowest Resistance per Carrier
RK = /q2
Jose Ignacio Izpura
Group of Microsystems and Electronic Materials, GMME-CEMDATIC, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Madrid, Spain
Received May 21, 2012; revised June 19, 2012; accepted July 9, 2012
After a criticism on today’s model for electrical noise in resistors, we pass to use a Quantum-compliant model based on
the discreteness of electrical charge in a complex Admittance. From this new model we show that carrier drift viewed as
charged particle motion in response to an electric field is unlike to occur in bulk regions of Solid-State devices where
carriers react as dipoles against this field. The absence of the shot noise that charges drifting in resistors should produce
and the evolution of the Phase Noise with the active power existing in the resonators of L-C oscillators, are two effects
added in proof for this conduction model without carrier drift where the resistance of any two-terminal device becomes
discrete and has a minimum value per carrier that is the Quantum resistance 2
Keywords: Fluctuation-Dissipation; Energy Conversion into Heat; Two-Terminal Device; Discrete Resistance;
Capacitance; Shot Noise; Quantum Hall Resistance
1. Introduction
Few years ago, the work entitled: “On the first measure-
ment of shot noise in macroscopic resistors by J. B.
Johnson” was rejected on the basis of the empirical ab-
sence of shot noise associated to a DC current in macro-
scopic resistors. Taking this absence as a type of dogma,
the rejection report stated: “Shot noise in resistors has
never been observed up to now. There is no shot noise
(proportional to the DC current) on top of the thermal
noise. If some increase in thermal noise was observed by
passing a current through the sample compared to the
thermal noise without current through the resistor then it
was due to a temperature increase of the sample. The
classical way to explain the non existence of shot noise in
resistors is to model the resistor by a large number of N
diodes in series each with noise source 2qI parallel to a
dynamic resistor rd. This results in a negligible current
noise for N as shown in:
NqIr qI
S (1)
Since scientific dogmas use to be replaced by better
ideas (not necessarily new ones) excelling them in some
way, let us summarize the main contributions of this pa-
per by rewriting these statements as: “Shot noise in re-
sistors is observed routinely but disguised as Johnson
noise. It comes from those electrons that pass randomly
between terminals in Thermal Equilibrium (TE). There is
no shot noise (proportional to the DC current) on top of
the Thermal Noise (TN) because DC current is Switched
Current that uses carrier polarization to emulate Resis-
tance each time an electron passes between terminals.
Thus, conduction current does not need electron pas-
sages other than those that already exist in TE. If some
increase in TN was observed by setting a DC current in
the resistor compared to its TN without this current in
the device, then it was due to a temperature increase of
the device. The way these results are obtained is by using
a Physical model for the resistor that shows why carrier
drift is not a cogent mechanism to explain the conduction
currents measured in Two-Terminal Devices (2TD) nei-
ther the Joule Effect associated to them”.
Since this paper is related with Instrumentation and
Measurement let us define DC current and conduction
current from the key role of the 2TD where they can be
measured. Note that electrical current always is measured
in a 2TD, not “in a material” as most people assume na-
ively. Conduction current iP(t) is current in-Phase with a
sinusoidal voltage v(t) between terminals of the 2TD. A
opyright © 2012 SciRes. JMP
J. I. IZPURA 763
different current also measured in a 2TD is its reactive
current iQ(t) found in-Quadrature with v(t). It is worth
noting that when electrons pass between terminals of a
2TD, they generate shot noise as it was observed long
time ago [1,2] and this passage requires reactive currents
iQ(t) in the 2TD (e.g. displacement currents), not conduc-
tion ones iP(t).
With regard “DC current”, it is conduction current ap-
pearing when frequency f 0. In this case we have: v(t)
0 and
0,vt t thus v(t) = V0, constant or static
during the measurement. The null derivative
0vt t
suggests that no net displacement current is required to
have DC current, or that there is no need for a net flux of
charges crossing the 2TD. The sinusoidal forms of v(t),
iP(t) and iQ(t) refer to the Fourier components of arbitrary
voltages and currents in a 2TD. Thanks to less dogmatic
referees, the reason why J. B. Johnson [3] already meas-
ured shot noise in 1928, can be read in [4] that not only
explains why “Shot noise in resistors appears disguised
as Johnson noise in TE”, but also gives a Quantum com-
pliant model for electrical noise in 2TDs that agrees with
the Quantum treatment of noise published by Callen and
Welton in 1951 [5]. Readers wishing to know more about
the use in 2TDs of the Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem
derived from [5], could find [6] of interest.
This paper is organized as follows. Section 2 criticises
today’s model of electrical noise in resistors based on a
lonely resistance R (conductance 1GR) driven by its
Nyquist noise density 22
n. This reflects
the partial understanding of [7] shown in [4,6]. From the
new model of [4], Section 3 shows that Joule effect is a
Conversion of electrical energy into heat that differs
from the Dissipation of electrical energy in the context of
[5] because electrical energy converted into heat by Joule
effect comes from a static field between terminals, but
the energy Dissipated accordingly to [4-6] comes from
thermal energy of the carriers previously converted into
electrical one by a transducer that exists in the 2TD. Fi-
nally, some conclusions are drawn at the end.
To end this Introduction let us consider the system
used to interact with a material (vacuum included [8]) in
electrical measurements. We mean the 2TD that appears
in Figure 1 for a one-dimensional (1-D) treatment of the
electrical conduction in 2TDs like resistors. It is worth
noting the capacitor formed by the two terminals (plates
D-D) of high conductivity (σ ) used to apply electric
fields to the material or to sense electric fields between
terminals of this 2TD like its Fluctuations of electric field
we called Thermal Actions (TA) in [4]. Hence, the ter-
minals of a 2TD are connected by any electric field ap-
pearing between them, in such a way that a Fluctuation
of charge appearing on one terminal bears with it a si-
multaneous Fluctuation (with opposed sign) of charge in
the other. Since v(t) is the difference of two electrical
potentials that appears simultaneously at terminals D-D
in Figure 1, the capacitance C between terminals is the
key element that links Cause (Fluctuations of charge in C)
with its measurable Effect that is v(t). This key role does
not depend on the resistance R between terminals and it
allowed us to tell that Johnson noise of Solid-State resis-
tors measured in V2/Hz is the Effect of a Cause (charge
noise power in C2/s, Nyquist noise density in A2/Hz) that
is the shot noise density of electrons passing randomly
between the plates of C in the resistor [4].
2. Criticism on Today’s View about Thermal
Noise in Resistors
Figure 1 also shows the starting point of the microscopic
model widely accepted for the electrical conduction in
Solid-State devices. This model considers electrons as
particles moving randomly through the material between
terminals of a resistor with thermal velocities vth 108
cm/s at room T (T = 300 K). Thus electrons are consid-
ered as particles colliding with the material (thus within
its volume) with a mean collision time τcoll of ps typi-
cally). This gives a mean collision path λcoll 1 μm,
much lower than the length L of macroscopic resistors.
This model where charged particles of mass m* or carri-
ers relax kinetic energy by collisions with relaxation time
τcoll leads to a Lorentzian spectrum for the spectral den-
sity of current fluctuations (in 2
) that is:
Sf R
where fc = 1/(2πτcoll) and R is the Resistance that Ohm’s
law gives for this parallelepiped of material, which is
inversely proportional to the conductivity σ of the ho-
mogeneous material between terminals D-D of Figure 1.
It is worth noting that Equation (2) is not Nyquist for-
mula with Plank’s constant [7], but the so-called Lorentz
spectrum, flat below the characteristic frequency fc (fc
1012 Hz) and proportional to 2
for c
Figure 1. Geometrical view (1-D) of a resistor made from a
parallelepiped of material ended by two highly conducting
“plates” or contacts.
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. JMP
Because for c
f Equation (2) gives the Nyquist
density 2
4AHzkT R, τcoll tends to be considered as the
more fundamental parameter to take into account the
Brownian motion process underlying TN in resistors.
This way, Equation (2) is considered as a microscopic
explanation of Nyquist result and thus, the circuits used
today to represent a noisy resistor remain those that were
derived from [7] long time ago. They are in Figure 2,
where the lonely resistance R seeks to represent a noise-
less resistor whereas a noisy one is represented by this R
together with a noise generator in parallel or in series
(Norton and Thèvenin equivalents).
However, we have shown in [6] that the Brownian
motion process that really matters for electrical noise is
the charge noise in C that Equation (2) does not consider
at all. Because electrical noise requires the presence of
electrical energy in the 2TD, the thermal origin of the
electrical noise explained by Nyquist [7] suggests the
presence of a Transducer#1 in the 2TD converting ki-
netic energy of the carriers into electrical energy that,
Fluctuating and being Dissipated in the 2TD accordingly
to [5], would produce its electrical noise. Transducer#1 is
no other than C [4], which also is the store of electrical
energy we had to propose in [9] for Solid-State resistors
and for reactive 2TDs associated to space charge regions
that modulate their resistance so as to produce their 1/f
“excess noise”. Since the collision model does not con-
sider these facts, Equation (2) is unaware about the quan-
tum mechanical factor given by Nyquist that is:
6 THz_
hf kT
hf hf
 
_300 K
where k is Boltzmann constant, T is temperature and h is
Plank constant. The noise densities 22
(Nyquist noise) and 22
4 VHz
ekTR (Johnson noise)
used in Figure 2 as in and en are constant up to frequen-
cies fQ where Equation (3) departs from 2kT. Since the
typical τcoll 1 ps found in the literature means that SI(f)
drops around fc 0.16 THz, the high ratio 1ff
suggests that electrons “collide” or interact in a very dif-
ferent way.
Figure 2. Electrical circuits derived from a simplified view
of Figure 1 that are widely used in noise calculations.
From the analogy of this collision model with the ki-
netic theory of gases and from the drift model that it re-
quires for electrical conduction we have to admit that the
material existing between plates D-D in Figure 1 con-
tains a gas of charged particles, each carrying a charge –q
–1.6 10–19 C. This gas is embedded in the material in
such a way that these carriers can interact with the lattice
but not among themselves. By this we mean that these
electrons moving randomly generate electrical noise as
the title of [7] suggests due to their electrical charge, but
for the same reason, they would have to repel mutually.
This makes hard to believe that these charged carriers
remain within the material without colliding electrically
among themselves to escape quickly towards its surfaces.
The dielectric relaxation time d
of the material
between terminals of Figure 1 that links its dielectric
permittivity ε with its conductivity σ, reflects the speed
of this escape process and also gives a good reason to
contend that if an electron exits in the form of a carrier
within the bulk region of the 2TD of Figure 1, it will not
be a unipolar charge, but a distributed dipole that, from
time to time, will appear as a long-range dipole on the
terminals of the 2TD, thus on its “surfaces” for the 1-D
treatment we are employing.
Another meaning of τd from the device viewpoint is
that a resistor with the shape of Figure 1 will shunt by a
capacitance dd
the resistance R it offers be-
tween terminals due to its material [9]. This shows that
Figure 1 is not complete since it lacks an electrical di-
pole appearing each time an electron is suddenly dis-
placed within its volume. Added to this, Figure 1 also
assumes that electrons can pass “partially” between ter-
minals as it is shown by the “current induced by an elec-
tron jump over λcoll < L”. We refer to the integral appear-
ing in Figure 1 where the Quantum of charge appears
multiplied by a ratio coll L
(usually 1L
) that
can take any continuous value. This means that we could
obtain currents carrying fractions of q in the external
circuit. Replacing the Ammeter Am of Figure 1 by a ca-
pacitance CMeas we would have the first capacitor (to our
knowledge) where the charge appearing on its plates
would be any fraction of q. Moreover, we do not need to
connect CMeas because C already is replacing the Amme-
ter if we leave the 2TD of Figure 1 under open circuit
To say it bluntly: accepting the collision model of
Figure 1 we are renouncing to the quantization of elec-
trical charge. Although the circuits of Figure 2 allow us
to solve accurately noise problems for resistors in TE, let
us show below that they are the origin of the above con-
flict because the lonely resistance R of Figure 2 is not a
complete representation of a noiseless resistor.
The Admittance Y(jf) (measured in A/V or –1) of the
circuit of Figure 2 is:
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. JMP
J. I. IZPURA 765
jG j 
YjfG jR
  (4)
where f is the measuring frequency and j is the imaginary
unit that multiplies a null Susceptance B(jf) = 0 because
there are not reactive elements in this circuit. Neglecting
edge effects due to the 1-D treatment at hand, the Y(jf) of
a device with the geometry of Figure 1 will be [8,9]:
Yjfj f
 
Comparing Equations (4) and (5) we observe that the
lonely R of Figure 2 can not represent the dielectric
properties of the 2TD of Figure 1 whose plates D-D clad
a volume of non null permittivity ε 0, thus requiring a
capacitance Cd in parallel with R. Although this Cd = τd/R
was found from Thermodynamics [9], the Complex Im-
pedance that appears repeatedly in [5] means that Quan-
tum Physics also demands a complex Admittance to de-
scribe noisy devices. Hence, none of the circuits of Fig-
ure 2 are Quantum representations of the noisy resistor
of Figure 1 because they do not allow for the existence
of Fluctuations of electrical energy in the 2TD of Figure
1. This is why we need the circuit of Figure 3 to have a
Physical model for resistors and capacitors [4-6,8,9].
Another objection to the collision model is the non
null time it assumes for electrons travelling between ter-
minals of the 2TD after a series of collisions. We mean
that an electron emitted from one of the terminals arrives
in the other terminal at a latter time ttransit, after many
collisions with the matter between terminals. Unaware of
C, this is the only option for electrons to pass between
terminals and to account for the conduction current in
2TDs. However, C is a much easier and faster path for
this purpose. By a Fluctuation of electric field in C an
electron will jump instantaneously the whole length L of
Figure 1 (recall the simultaneous Fluctuations of charge
in the plates of C) and although a mean collision path λcoll
1 μm hardly would suggest such a jump for L 1 cm in
Figure 1, the existence of C makes believable (and likely)
these jumps that we called TAs. The Cause-Effect link
between noise currents iQ(t) and iP(t) in the circuit of
Figure 3 [4,6] strongly suggests that electrons use C to
pass between the terminals of a 2TD.
When a TA occurs the electron that has passed between
terminals of the 2TD sets an energy 22Eq C J in t =
0. This is the way Transducer#1 converts kinetic energy
Figure 3. Electrical circuit giving a cogent representation of
noisy devices like resistors or capacitors with the shape of
Figure 1 [4].
of carriers into a Fluctuation of electrical energy (Cause)
subsequently Dissipated (Effect) [4]. Once this energy is
in C, it starts to relax by a slower conduction current
linked with R that Dissipates this Fluctuation E in the
2TD. This is the Device Reaction (DR) [4], where the
reuse of the path through C in opposed sense to remove
quickly E is avoided by this relaxation itself. The en-
ergy E(t = 0+) existing in C slightly after the TA born in
t = 0 will be lower than
. This means that the
electron just displaced has not enough energy to jump
back through C and the 2TD has to use the slower path
that involves R to continue dissipating this E(t = 0+).
The non null time t required to build a TA (see below)
means that a 2TD having suffered one, will spend some
time t before being ready for a new TA no matter its
sign. This guarantees E(t = 0+) < 22qC
and avoids
the “backward jump” of the displaced electron.
Learning from [7], H. Nyquist had to build a device
with both dissipative and reactive elements to explain the
thermal origin of the noise measured by Johnson [3]. We
refer to the Transmission Line (TL) he ended by two
conductors of pure resistance R” (sic), likely because he
knew well the meaning of Equation (5). The Susceptance
of this TL made possible Fluctuations of electrical en-
ergy at each f or the Degree of Freedom (DF) he needed
to apply Equipartition. It is worth noting that the null
B(jf0) = 0 of the tuned TL of [7] at each f or that of an
L-C tank at its resonance frequency
12 2πfLC
both imply presence of susceptance in the 2TD, not its
absence. This presence of two susceptances of equal
magnitude but opposed sign creates the null disposition
of the 2TD to vary its energy content in response to si-
nusoidal currents at f0. However, this presence allows for
the Fluctuation of energy content in the circuit under
-like currents like TAs.
The absence of susceptance would make the 2TD to-
tally unable to store electrical energy and hence, unable
to show Fluctuations (TAs) of this type of energy. Thus,
the susceptance of a resistor should not be despised to
study its noise as it is done in the circuits of Figure 2. A
low C value (e.g. C < 10–13 F) should not be despised in
Figure 1 because it means that the bandwidth of the 2TD
is wide enough so as to accumulate the thermal fluctua-
tion 2kT J from the flat density SV = 4kTR V2/Hz [4,6].
Thus, R is a spectrum shaper to accomplish Equipartion
in C, a novelty that added to the discrete nature of the
electrical charge gives a better model for thermal noise
than that coming from Figure 2 [4]. To assume C = 0 in
Figure 1 leads to assume naively absence of susceptance
in this device and this wrong idea shows the partial in-
terpretation of [7] that we reveal in [4].
This idea about C = 0 likely comes from a misunder-
standing of Susceptance as the ability of circuits to store
electrical energy. Looking for its true meaning one finds
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. JMP
that the reactive power pC(t) in C under sinusoidal re-
gime is equal to the time derivative of its electrical en-
ergy: see Equation (7) in Appendix II of [4]. This change
with time of the energy in C is proportional to its Sus-
ceptance B = 2πfC. Therefore, B(f) reflects the ability of
the circuit to vary its content of electrical energy, not its
ability to store this energy that, of course, the circuit also
has due to its susceptances.
Applying Equipartition in Figure 3 we obtain:
22 2
kT Cv
 2kT
This is the kTC noise of a capacitor of capacitance
C in TE (64 μVrms for C = 1 pF at room T) that is kept
in TE by a charge noise in C of mean power
1 C
2/s that being truly impulsive noise, will
have a flat spectral density
I A2/Hz
where R* is the small-signal resistance shunting C no mat-
ter its origin. This result unifies small-signal resistances
with “ohmic” ones found in devices with the shape of
Figure 1, but it also discretizes electrical Resistance into
a random series in time of chances to Dissipate packets
of energy set by previous Fluctuations. Since the Phase
Noise of L-C oscillators requires considering R as a
similar series of chances to Convert into heat packets of
energy loaded from the voltage existing between termi-
nals of a 2TD [10,11], let us show the new conduction
model that allows for the existence of these two series of
Dissipations and Conversions of electrical energy that
can occur in 2TDs and that the collision model is totally
unaware of.
3. The Reactive Behaviour of Carriers
Used to a microscopic view of Ohm’s law based on the
collision model, we had to review the conduction me-
chanism under this model we believed in some time ago.
Due to its availability, the aforesaid view about Ohm’s
law has been taken from [12], where it is written: “When
electric current in a material is proportional to the volt-
age across it, the material is said to be ohmic”, or to
obey Ohms law. A microscopic view suggests that this
proportionality comes from the fact that an applied elec-
tric field superimposes a small drift velocity on the free
electrons in a metal. For ordinary currents, this drift
velocity is on the order of millimeters per second in con-
trast to the speeds of the electrons themselves which are
on the order of a million meters per second. Even the
electron speeds are themselves small compared to the
speed of transmission of an electrical signal down a wire,
which is on the order of the speed of light, 300 million
meters per second.”
Let us begin this review by recalling again that elec-
trical current never is measured in materials but in de-
vices whose key role in measurements will appear soon.
Fixing this misconception we have: “When electric cur-
rent in a 2TD is proportional to the voltage across it, the
2TD is said to be ohmic”, or to obey Ohms law ….
Now, let us consider that the passage of electrons in a
2TD has to be done independently one of each other be-
cause these quanta of electric charge do not travel side by
side merging their charge. Cladding by two ideal plates
A and B of σ a slice of copper wire of thickness L,
we would have a 2TD where a DC current ID 1.6 A
would require the independent passage of 1019 electrons
per second. Each passage would need a fluctuation of
electric field that should be created in a time interval t
shorter than 10–19 seconds to avoid time overlapping of
these passages that would invalidate their independence
in time. In this 2TD we find its capacitance C between
terminals A and B at distance L that would be shunted by
the conductance G of the copper disk. Each electron dis-
placed from plate A to plate B would set a charge +q C
in plate A and –q C in plate B, thus building a System0
of energy
22Eq C in t. Although the passage
of the electron between plates is instantaneous, the en-
ergy E it requires needs time to appear in the 2TD ac-
cordingly to Quantum Physics. This leads to a finite in-
teraction power that avoids a paradox appearing when an
infinite interaction power as that of perfectly-elastic col-
lisions in Brownian motion is assumed [6].
The highest E of each System0 built in this 2TD will
correspond to its lowest capacitance C coming from
plates A and B cladding vacuum of permittivity ε0. This
0Dev F, where ADev is the area of each
plate, because polarization mechanisms of the copper
have no time to react in this instantaneous passage of an
electron between plates. Once System0 with energy
 J has been created, the 2TD will start to
evolve in time (e.g. by redistributing its charges at a
speed governed by the τd of copper, likely very short).
But if System0 can not be created within t < 10–19 s, this
electron passage will not take place. For copper wire of
= 1 mm we would have: ADev 0.008 cm2 and using L =
0.4 mm to have a “slice” suitable for the 1-D treatment at
hand, we would obtain:
Dev cm. The energy
to be built in C in a time interval t < 10–19 s is:
2710EqL A
 
The Time-Energy Uncertainty Principle (TEUP) of
Quantum Physics states that a state that only exists for a
short time t cannot have an energy defined better than
4πEh t
Q. Taking the entire time slot t 10–19 s
as an upper limit for the existence of each System0, we
find that its energy can be defined down to: EQ = 5.27
10–16 J that roughly is 1011 times E. Thus, the familiar
copper wire made from slices like this one is a 2TD that
needs much more time than t to define each energy
state required by the independent passage of 1019 elec-
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. JMP
J. I. IZPURA 767
trons per second. Hence, a conduction current ID = 1.6 A
in copper wire coming from the independent passage of
electrons between terminals would infringe Quantum
Physics. This is why nobody has observed the shot noise
of this passage of electrons that would be a flat density
SNotSeen = 2qID A
2/Hz from DC (f 0) up to fNS 1/t
that should be observed routinely. The suspicious fNS
107 THz surpassing largely the Quantum limit fQ (fNS
106·fQ) and Q
infringing Quantum rules ex-
plain this absence of SNotSeen and not Equation (1), where
the conversion of the 2qI A2/Hz noise density into V2/Hz
by the square of the noiseless resistance rd [4] is wrong if
we consider the unavoidable C of each differential diode.
The above result comes from a “well known” property
of electrons that is their mutual interaction bringing them
to the surfaces of a conductor or preventing them from
travelling together as bigger quanta of charge. Thus, the
net passage of electrons between terminals of a 2TD can
not account for its conduction currents and the carrier
drift associated with the collision model is doubtful be-
cause it is based on this net passage. With regard the si-
multaneous but slow passage of several electrons be-
tween terminals of a 2TD that the collision model sug-
gests, it is linked with the unlike existence of the gas of
charged particles in the conducting volume of a 2TD with-
out “exploding” towards its surface, as this model assumes.
To find an alternative to carrier drift, let us review
some ideas on electron motion in the circuit of Figure 4,
where C comes from a parallel-plate capacitor with a
material between plates whose Resistance is RX. Since
this material can not block the passage of electrons be-
cause it is clad between the plates of C, an AC current i(t)
will exist in this circuit and its active power on RX will
heat-up it by Joule effect. This series equivalent of the
parallel circuit of Figure 3 is used to focus our attention
on the discreteness of the current i(t) due to electrons
that cross C, but that do not need to cross RX because C
and RX actually are in parallel as it is shown in Figure 3.
To see why this passage through RX = R* is unnecessary,
a good starting point is to realize that pR(t) (the active
power on RX) only is energy taken from the generator vg(t)
at the rate of pR(t) J/s or W. Silencing vg(t) by making vg(t)
= 0 and activating the Norton generator between termi-
nals A and B, the energy delivered by this generator at
this pR(t) could be seen as energy converted into heat by
an internal loss mechanism between plates of C (repre-
sented by R*) that was activated by making RX = 0 in
Figure 4.
Readers used to Thèvenin-Norton equivalents could
believe that we are replacing the series circuit of Figure
4 by its Norton equivalent having a resistance R* in par-
allel with C. However, we do not want to replace RX by
this R* suggesting again an electron drift through R* to
account for pR(t). Contrarily, we think on the way Resis-
tance is accurately emulated by switching the energy that
enters and exits a Capacitance [13] as it is shown in Fig-
ure 5, where the voltage V0 that would be in parallel with
the noise generator NI(f) of Figure 3 only means that
there is a DC voltage between terminals, that is static or
constant on average to simplify. By switching the small
capacitance Cf at an enormous rate λ (e.g. λ > 1013 s–1) we
would obtain a “fine-grain” emulation of the resistance
R* not only for the DC or static voltage V0, but also for
cuasi static V0(t) oscillating up to frequencies well in the
GHz range. The reason for this emulation will be clear
Recalling what we wrote in previous Section to dis-
card currents carrying fractions of q in the Ammeter of
Figure 1 (e.g. through its C) we can say that any noise
current in a 2TD will be discrete. This applies to the cur-
rents associated with
2/Hz in Fig-
ure 3, which represents a 2TD with the shape of Figure
1. For reactive currents iQ(t) in the 2TD this is clear be-
cause they mean the passage of discrete electrons be-
tween terminals. Concerning conduction current iP(t),
Figure 4 suggests that conduction current in RX will be
discrete too because it has to come from an integer mul-
tiple of q crossing C in this series connection. However,
the switching mechanism we have advanced will allow
for a discrete conduction current without electrons cross-
ing the 2TD on average.
Since Figures 3 and 4 are equivalent for vg = 4kTR*
V2/Hz and RX = R* (this is why the plates of C in Figure
4 have letters A and B of Figure 3), any noise current in
resistors is discrete due to its C 0 and the “current in-
duced by an electron jump over λ < L” shown in Figure
1 that leads to Equation (2) has no Physical sense under
Figure 4. Electrical circuit where i(t) is discrete due to the
discrete nature of the electrical charge that crosses C.
Figure 5. Circuit representing the switching mechanism due
to fluctuations of the electric field in a resistor that leads to
the current i(t) in phase with the voltage between its termi-
nals by charging/discharging the capaci tance Cf.
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. JMP
the new model of Figure 3. This discreteness of i(t)
coming from the finite L of a 2TD shows the key role of
the device in the measurements we can take. Because the
two options for an electron in a 2TD with the geometry
of Figure 1 (e.g. to jump the whole L through C or not
jump at all) strongly recall displacement and conduction
currents as orthogonal processes in a 2TD [4], let us take
a closer look to the 2TD of finite L represented by Fig-
ure 3 that is a resistor of resistance R* shunted by C or a
capacitor of capacitance C shunted by R*.
The name depends on the working frequency f through
its Quality factor Q = 2πfCR*: good capacitor for
and good resistor for because Q = 0 and Q
do not correspond to physical devices [8]. When a volt-
age v = +q/C V (Effect) appears suddenly between ter-
minals A and B of Figure 3, we can say that its Cause is
the instantaneous displacement of one electron from plate
A to plate B. This motion of charge in tTA 0 suggests
a short and intense current pulse of amplitude I = q/tTA
carrying the charge: tTA I = q C. If tTA was null, the
+90˚ phase advance of each sinusoidal component of i(t)
through C respect to its voltage vc(t) on C at each f would
make null the active power during this instantaneous
pulse [6]. The jump of the electron “through R*” as a
possible cause for v is discarded because this path
where i(t) and vc(t) are in-phase at each f needs time to
take place in order to keep finite the interaction power [6]
(e.g. (i)2 R* when it takes place in t 0).
Hence, the passage of electrons between terminals of a
2TD is easy and instantaneous “through” C, but their
passage through the R* of the 2TD is more difficult. This
is easy to accept from the Quantum compliant model of
Figure 3, but hard to accept from the collision model
with coll
typically. In this case, the sudden pas-
sage of an electron between terminals of a 2TD becomes
believable if it is done by a fast fluctuation EFL of the
electric field in its solid Matter giving a Fluctuation of
22qC J in the electrostatic energy stored along L (e.g.
stored in the C that the collision model of Equation (2) is
unaware of). Since the v due to this field fluctuation EFL
and that due to the jump of an electron between terminals
is undistinguishable, let us believe in electrons jumping
any distance L between contacts by Fluctuations of the
electrical energy stored in the C of a 2TD that we called
TAs [4,6].
This replacement of charge motion in space by an
electric field that varies in time paves the way to explain
conduction currents in 2TDs without drifting carriers. As
we showed in [4], the rate λ of TAs in the device (resistor
or capacitor) of Figure 3 at temperature T is:
 
S f
kT kT
qR R
  (7)
thus showing that the familiar Nyquist noise SI assigned
to the resistance R of a resistor simply is the shot noise
density SIshot(f) of the λ fluctuations of electric field tak-
ing place per unit time in its C. Considering that shot
noise comes from the independent passage [1] of elec-
trons between contacts of 2TDs, the first measurement of
shot noise in resistors already was published 84 years ago
[3]. The interaction of this noise with the Admittance of
Solid-state resistors disguises this discrete shot noise as a
continuous Johnson noise coming from the huge rate λ (λ
3 1014 s–1 for 1 k at room T) by which small voltage
steps (v 0.16 μV for C = 1 pF), each decaying with
time constant τEN = R*C, create Johnson noise. From
Figure 3, the active power pR that enters a resistor will
be its mean square voltage noise given by Equation (6)
divided by its R:
 (8)
This noise power pR W, which is the ratio between
thermal energy per Degree of Freedom UDF and lifetime
U of the ene rgy in C, is thus Dissipated by the
resistor in TE at T [4]. For a resistor of R = 1 M with C
= 0.1 pF between terminals we have τEN = R*C = 100 ns,
thus: pR 4 10–14 W at T = 300 K. The spectrum of this
noise coming from the Quantum model of Figure 3 is
formally equal to Equation (2) by replacing τcoll by τEN,
but they have nothing to do. The Brownian motion en-
semble for particles of mass m* colliding with the lattice
that gives the Lorentzian spectrum of Equation (2), is not
Nyquist result concerning current fluctuations SI(f) (A2/Hz)
as we have written previously. This is not surprising be-
cause the cut-off frequency fc of Equation (2) comes from
a relaxation of kinetic energy in a gas of charged parti-
cles that to exist in the volume of material has to infringe
the meaning of its τd, whereas the quantum limit fQ has
more to do with Fluctuation Dissipation processes [5] or
TA-DR pairs [4] giving electrical noise.
Hence, the Brownian motion ensemble that really
matters for electrical noise is shown in Figure 3 [4,6]
because this noise is born from interactions of quanta of
charge q with the Admittance of the 2TD, or if we prefer:
from “collisions” of these quanta in the C of the 2TD
with a mean power *
4kT R C
2/s [4]. The use of this
electrical ensemble allows for the separation of Dissipa-
tions of electrical energy stored in C from Conversions
into heat of electrical energy that the voltage V0 stores in
a different Degree of Freedom than that of C. Due to the
wrong ensemble leading to Equation (2), these two con-
cepts do not appear in the collision model.
Following [4] pR is an active power, thus electrical en-
ergy entering the 2TD that generates heat at pR W that is
delivered to the resistor. However, T does not rise be-
cause this pR comes from previous conversions of kinetic
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. JMP
J. I. IZPURA 769
energy of the carriers into electrical one performed by C
(Transducer#1). Since this extraction process borrows
kinetic energy at the rate of λ TAs per second of
J each, it cools the resistor at a rate of
J/s that from Equation (7) is pR W too.
Therefore, the λ DRs per second observed as Johnson
noise dissipating pR W in a resistor simply are giv-
ing-back to this 2TD the energy that its C is borrowing at
the same rate on average. This way, a null net transfer of
energy results, T does not vary as it must be in TE, and
the noise kTC V
2 on C shows that Equipartition ap-
plies to the DF associated to C.
Hence, Dissipation of electrical energy in TE that is
linked with electrical noise must be different from Con-
version of electrical energy into heat linked with Joule
Effect out of TE. Accordingly to [4], the Dissipation of
the energy set by a TA is done subsequently by a DR that
involves a slower conduction current governed by τd or
by τEN = RC if the resistor has stray capacitance Cstray
added to its Cd, see Figure 10 of [4]. To show what we
mean, let us consider a macroscopic resistor of R = 1 M
in TE at T = 300 K with C = 0.1 pF, thus Dissipating pR
4 10–14 W. This C that is taken as typical for resistors in
good setups for noise measurements would include the
usually smaller Cd offered by typical conductors with τd
below the ns. Biasing this resistor by a DC current IDC =
2 μA the active power pDC = 4 μW entering this 2TD
would not rise very much its T 300 K. Thus, the John-
son noise of this resistor in TE and out of TE will be
similar. From the
= 108 factor between the
active power the resistor handles in each case, the way
the active power pR is Dissipated in TE can not be the
way the active power pDC is Converted into heat out of
TE as we had to consider from the behaviour of the Phase
Noise known as Line Broadening in L-C oscillators
Figure 6 allows to show the conduction mechanism
that keeping the λ TAs per second of the resistor in TE
(thus its noise power pR), is capable to convert into heat
its pDC = 108·pR. Since each TA is a field fluctuation
linked with current in-quadra ture with the voltage of the
2TD in sinusoidal regime, a good way to keep undis-
turbed the rate λ of Equation (7) is to focus on a current
that always is measured in-phase with v(t). We mean the
DC current under the static field between terminals
linked with a DC voltage term V0 in the v(t) of a resistor.
Because no new displacements of charge other than those
of TE can take place in the resistor under V0 0, let us
consider dipolar structures of charge that polarized by the
electric field V0/L (V/cm) will load electrical energy from
this static V0 between terminals. This type of reaction is
well known as a static process of dielectrics that is un-
able to sustain a constant current in time. But when this
process becomes discontinuous as it happens with the
carriers of a 2TD, it allows for the conversion of electri-
cal energy into heat at the rate pDC = 2*
VR that Joule
Effect requires in Figure 3.
Figure 6 shows the Conduction Band (CB) diagrams
of a Metal-Semiconductor-Metal (MSM) resistor made
from two ohmic contacts or plates, see Figure 1, clad-
ding a volume of n-type Semiconductor whose carriers
are free electrons in the CB. Sketched in Figure 6 also
are the dipolar charge densities (in C/cm3) linked with an
electron in a quantum state (QS) of the CB. The negative
charge –q of this carrier has a wavefunction distributed in
the volume of this 2TD seeking to screen a fixed +q
charge also distributed in this volume to minimize elec-
trostatic energy. This distributed dipole of charge con-
tributes to the charge neutrality found in the bulk region
of a 2TD. Note that for TAs (e.g. fluctuations of electric
field) the two plates of Figure 6 are connected in such a
way that a plate only can emit an electron to a QS of the
CB when the other plate captures simultaneously the free
electron that was previously in this QS [4].
Emissions without this simultaneous capture will be
considered later. Figure 6 shows two energy spikes that
electrons easily cross because those metal atoms of the
plates that have diffused to form an n+-n-n+ structure,
make them very thin. This facilitates electron tunnelling
through these barriers (e.g. capture and emission of elec-
trons by the terminals of the 2TD). There are λ/2 Cap-
tures per second and λ/2 Emissions per second at each
plate on average, thus λ TAs per second in the 2TD, 50%
of each sign. Used to Emission-Capture processes as-
signed to the handy carrier traps, the novelty added by C
is that each Capture of an electron by one contact implies
the simultaneous Emission of an electron from the other.
The electric field of C synchronizes these two processes
that are fully equivalent to a Fluctuation of
in the energy of C that we called TA in [4].
(a) (b)
Figure 6. Band diagrams of a resistor made from n-type
semiconductor and volumetric densities of charge associ-
ated to one of its carriers in two different conditions: (a) In
TE; (b) With a static voltage V0 between terminals (see text).
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. JMP
By symmetry, the average capture rate in each plate is
λ/2 and when an electron of the CB is captured by one
terminal, the extended wavefunction of its –q charge
collapses into a wavefunction that localizes this charge
on the surface of one plate (e.g. a TA takes place). Hence,
those electrons forming carriers in the 2TD have two DF
to attend: 1) being a long-range dipole between plates in
each field fluctuation called TA, and 2) becoming a
short-range, distributed dipole, in the volume of the 2TD
(e.g. being a carrier in the CB). To attend these two DFs,
the electron will switch in time between these states.
Concerning emissions of electrons to an empty QS of
the CB without a simultaneous capture by other plate, we
will say that this “lonely emission” is typical from local
defects as impurities for example. In this case the elec-
tron arriving in the QS keeps an electrical link with the
defect it leaves, thus being liable to be captured at a later
time without needing a third element. This way, the elec-
tron and the charged defect become the charges –q and
+q linked by the electric field in a new device liable to
give fluctuations in carrier flux, carrier number or in its
mobility for example. Since this situation that recalls the
electrical coupling between the filament of a vacuum
tube and its surrounding electron cloud [14], has been
studied recently to explain the flicker noise of electron
fluxes in vacuum devices [8], we will not consider here
this type of fluctuations that depart from the Fluctuations
handled in [4-6].
Because V0 does not modify noticeably in Figure 6 the
high field of the energy barriers, the contact resistances
entering in the whole resistance R* of the resistor do not
vary and this keeps λ, see Equation (7). This way, V0 or
its current in-phase IDC do not change the rate λ of TAs
and the Johnson noise of the device under V0 is similar to
that in TE. By loading energy on each carrier that was
proportional to (V0)2 and that was released as heat each
time the free electron passed to form a TA, there would
be a conversion of electrical energy into heat at a rate
proportional to λ(V0)2. This means an active power pro-
portional to
0. Using Equation (7) to make it
equal to the active power assigned to Joule effect, the
energy Uf that each carrier would load from V0 would be
DC f
 
Thus, the reaction of each carrier as a small capaci-
tance 2
f F loading energy from V0 and re-
leasing it as heat each time it takes place in a TA, allows
for the explanation of Joule effect without requiring car-
rier drift and without changing the thermal noise the re-
sistor had in TE. Thermal activity sustaining in time an
imperfect screening between the charges +q and –q of
each carrier would make it a thermal dipole of charges
+q and –q on its plates liable to be polarized. This way,
the electric field V0/L would see these carriers as trem-
bling dipoles of charges +q and –q, each acting as an
average capacitance Cf, that would become polarized as
sketched in Figure 6. Thus, each carrier in the CB would
be formed by a flabby cloud of charge –q distributed in
the volume of the 2TD, aiming at screening as much as
possible its portion of charge +q that would be a sort of
rigid density of charge also distributed within this vol-
Although the exact form of these charge densities
sketched in Figure 6(a) would depend on lattice atoms,
doping, dislocations, etc. and on the Bloch functions de-
fining the wavefunction of each electron within the de-
vice, this shape is irrelevant here. What matters is to re-
alize that carriers (free electrons in the CB) are not uni-
polar charges liable to drift under the electric field due
to V0 as point charges that, being negatively charged,
would “explode” towards the surface. On the contrary, a
free electron in the CB is captive in the bulk of the 2TD
that hides its charge by the aforesaid screening required
by charge neutrality. From time to time, this captive di-
pole will show its charges on the surfaces (plates) of the
2TD. This will occur, each time its electron takes place
in a TA or Fluctuation of electric field in the 2TD. This
way, the electron continues captive in the 2TD, but
looking freer in another Degree of Freedom less sub-
jected to the rigorous law of charge neutrality prevailing
in the bulk.
Polarization loading Uf on each carrier will be a fast
process for conductors (recall the meaning of d
and since the support of Uf in the volume of the device
will disappear each time the carrier appears on the plates
in a TA, this Uf will be released as phonons to the vol-
ume of the 2TD. This release will be accomplished by
the synchronous shaking of the lattice at different posi-
tions (e.g. those shown by a small cross in Figure 6) tak-
ing place each time the flabby cloud exerting force on
these points disappears in the TA. In summary: the re-
lease of the energy Uf loaded by a carrier from 0 in
a resistor is triggered by each Fluctuation of this field
that implicates this carrier. This replaces drifting charges
by interacting fields and explains how to convert electri-
cal energy into heat without carriers drifting in Solid
Although a TA occurs instantaneously, its associated
energy requires some time tTA to appear in the 2TD to
keep finite the power of this Fluctuation (see a paradox
appearing when one uses naively an infinite interaction
power [6]). To consider the non null tTA that a carrier
needs to carry out the TA in which it is implicated, let us
use the same TEUP we used to discard carrier drift. Re-
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. JMP
J. I. IZPURA 771
calling the meaning of System 0, the minimum time in-
terval tTA required to define the energy
22Eq C
of the System0 for each TA would be:
Ett q
 
CRC (10)
where RK is link with the Quantum Hall Resistance we
found in [15] looking for a metrological interest of the
discrete resistance proposed in [4]. Before reading [15]
we considered RK as the lowest possible resistance per
carrier of a 2TD giving the maximum active power per
carrier in it. This appears by considering the highest rate
of TAs in a 2TD with only one carrier that would be: λQ =
1 st
TA if the E set in C by each TA disappeared
instantaneously. Since a TA is the Cause that sets
vqC V in the 2TD (Effect) we can take v as the
average voltage in C during tTA. If the energy E was
removed by the arrival of the next TA, the active power
sustaining in time the static voltage v in C would be:
 
Equation (11) means that PQ is the active power that
enters the Conductance 12GR
driven by the
continuous voltage v sustained in this way. Thus, GQ
would be the highest Conductance of a 2TD like that of
Figure 1 with only one carrier in its volume, due to the
maximum rate of TAs in its capacitance C. However,
Figure 7(a) shows the outer capacitance C of this 2TD
due to charge densities induced by each TA on the ex-
ternal faces of its plates of σ under the open-circuit
condition that exists for an instantaneous TA due to the
inductance of external wires. In the 1-D model at hand,
the magnitude of electric field at points a, b, b’ and a’ of
Figure 7(a) is the same because the charge density on
each surface has the same magnitude. Since the plates are
equipotential, the voltage drop going from point a on
plate A to point b on plate B will be equal to the voltage
drop going from point b’ to point a’ on the outer surfaces.
Hence, each TA sets E in the inner C and E in the
outer C, thus 2
J in all, which is the en-
ergy of two parallel sheets of charges +q and –q sepa-
rated by a distance L. This is the “electrical image of a
TA” that appears in Figure 7(b) together with its fluc-
tuation of electric field 0
Using ETrue in Equations (10) and (11) the active
power needed to sustain the static voltage v in C be-
comes: ptrue = 4pQ. Connecting a generator to this 2TD,
the outer C of Figure 7(a) becomes the capacitance of
the new 2TD that the generator is. Given the opposed
signs of reactive currents in the inner and outer C from
the generator viewpoint, this generator would be deliver-
ing an active power ptrue = 4pQ while absorbing 2pQ due
to its role as inner C. Therefore, this generator would be
delivering an active power Pmeas = 2pQ W to sustain v.
Thus, the lowest resistance per carrier that a 2TD can
offer is RK.
Equipartition theorem also must apply to the DF that
Cf represents. For an electron emitted to the lowest en-
ergy level of the CB, the first image of its dipolar charge
would show its –q cloud closely wrapped around its +q
array, good average screening of Figure 6(a). This is a
very cold carrier that interacting thermally will pass to
show the mean thermal energy2 J in TE by an
imperfect screening between its +q and –q charges
varying randomly with time around its minimum value.
Viewing this trembling dipole as two charges +q and –q
separated by a distance d(t) varying with time, each car-
rier is thus a capacitance CF(t) ovalue
f mean
“built” by the av energy erage2kT J set by Equiparti-
tion in this DF linked with carrier polarization. Therefore,
CF(t) should fluctuate around this
Ct: mean value
 
22 2
22 2
kTqqq q
Hence, the mean capacitance F set by Equi-
partition for each carrier in TE is the Cf that Equation (9)
needs to account for Joule Effect out of TE by carrier
polarization. Loading energy from V0 in Cf and releasing
it to the lattice as heat each time a TA takes place, the
active power
is converted into heat without
requiring carriers colliding within the 2TD. Since this
pDC will try to heat-up the resistor out of TE due to its V0
0, we are assuming a good extraction of this heat to
keep T close to its value for V0 = 0 in order to keep its
noise of TE. This new model for the familiar Joule effect
departs markedly from the one we had accordingly to the
microscopic view of Ohm’s law given in [12] that is based
on carriers drifting under the action of the field
The deep rooted character of this idea on electrical
Figure 7. (a) 1-D sketch of electric field and charge densities
associated with a thermal action in a 2TD having two ideal-
ized terminals (see text); (b) 1-D sketch of electric field and
dipolar charge associated with a fluctuation of electric field
EFL taking place in a real 2TD (e.g. a thermal action).
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. JMP
conduction requiring “carrier motion in space” can be
seen in Section 2.3 of [16] by these phrases:
The basic physical fact to be borne in mind when
discussing polarisation is that polarisation arises from a
finite displacement of charges in a steady electric field
and this is to be contrasted with the complementary
physical phenomenon of electrical conduction which is
characterised by the fact that conduction arises from a
finite average velocity of motion of charges in a steady
electric field.” After these sentences, we also can read
this one about polarising species “…which are incapable
of leading to a continuing conduction current in a static
field” [16] (except for enormous fields 1010 - 1011 V/m
breaking dipoles that we will not consider here).
Working with noise, “static is more the exception
than the rule and switching mechanisms making devices
work are familiar. Transformers unable to work under a
static or DC voltage V0, perform well if the voltage V0 is
switched in time and a capacitance Cf that is charged and
discharged at a high rate λ can emulate very convincingly
a Resistance R* by the conversion of electrical power into
heat that takes place in Figure 5, where the active power
pDC leaving the generator V0 towards its switched emula-
tor of R*, simply is λ times the energy loaded in Cf: pDC =
0 J/s or W. To emulate R* = 1 k by the
small capacitance Cf of a single carrier in the resistor of
Figure 5 at T = 300 K, the required rate is given by
Equation (7): λ 3 1014 commutations per second. This
is a high rate that could conflict with the TEUP, but di-
viding λ by the huge number of carriers (parallel chan-
nels) that exist in typical 2TDs, no conflict appears.
With λ 3 1014 s–1, the active power *
that leaves the generator V0 in Figure 5 is exactly equal
to the active power converted into heat by a resistor of R*
= 1 k driven by V0. The inverter of Figure 5 guarantees
two excluding states for switches SW1 and SW2 emulat-
ing the two excluding states of the electron in Figure 5: 1)
free carrier in the volume (SW1 ON, SW2 OFF) or 2)
long range dipole on the terminals (SW2 ON, SW1 OFF).
When SW1 becomes ON, the carrier loads its Cf with
0ff in a time interval tload τd. This Uf
remains in Cf until the next TA implicating this electron
because this circuit does not have resistances other than
R* emulated in this way. Concerning the way active
power leaves R* we will say that closing briefly SW2
during tTA the energy Uf leaves Cf as heat “in the wire
of SW2. However, the null resistance of this wire hardly
would convert electrical energy into heat at first sight.
The problem can be solved by considering this wire as a
very low inductance LS 0. This would lead to an L-Cf
resonant circuit of resonance frequency f0 giving a
high enough number of periods during tTA so as to radi-
ate all the energy Uf that was in Cf. This way, Uf would
leave Cf converted into a different type of energy. After
the brief tTA, SW1 would become ON and Cf would
acquire another packet of energy Uf. Repeating the “TA
state” (SW1 OFF, SW2 ON) λ times per second, an ac-
tive power 2*
pV would be converted into
photons and radiated by the L-Cf circuit. The “radiation
resistance” of this switched LS-Cf tank would emulate the
continuous resistance of *2
that seems to
be connected to the generator V0 due to the pDC it delivers
in an ultrafast switched mode that looks continuous as
Ohm’s Law considers.
For switching rates like λ 3 1014 s–1 the current i(t)
of Figure 5 looks like DC (e.g. continuous) and if V0 was
a quasi-static voltage of amplitude V0 oscillating at 100
MHz for example, the current i(t) would track closely V0
as a sinusoidal current of amplitude *
V A at 100 MHz
that would be “totally” in-phase with V0(t). This would
be so because the period T0 = 10 ns is a time window for
3 105 TAs. Due to this huge switching rate the Phase
uncertainty would be of the order of 5
[11]. Unaware of the discreteness of i(t) and unable to
measure a relative phase with this degree of accuracy, we
would think of this current as the conduction current of
electrons drifting through a “continuous” resistor of R* =
1 k driven by V0 oscillating at 100 MHz. The novelty is
that R* is a discrete series of λ chances in time to convert
electrical energy into another form. This idea has been
used to explain Phase Noise in L-C oscillators [10,11].
The behaviour of carriers as distributed dipoles added
to their need to appear as charges on the terminals of a
2TD from time to time, lead to show that the generation
of heat by Joule Effect comes from a Switched Current
(SC) that looks totally in phase with any AC voltage V0(t)
on the 2TD for frequencies
. This limit however,
will be lower in general:
f, due to the cut-off
ENEN of the circuit of Figure 3.
This lower limit set by the Admitance of the 2TD further
disguises this SC as “continuous current” or DC. This
recalls the action of this Admittance on the shot noise of
TAs disguising them as a continuous Johnson noise. Re-
calling words about “the complementary physical phe-
nomenon of electrical conduction” [16] respect to static
polarization, let us say that discrete charges that cross
the 2TD as a mean current
Q = IDC in capacitive
devices produce its familiar shot noise Sshot = 2qIDC
A2/Hz whereas carriers that do not cross the 2TD are
capable however, to emulate a mean current
P =
IDC in-phase with its voltage v(t) that is noiseless.
Finally let us say that this model explains well why the
Phase Noise of an L-C oscillator is reduced as its Signal
power rises provided its T raise is low. Unaware about
the difference between Dissipation of energy and its
Conversion into heat, an increase of the active power
(Signal power) in the resonator of an oscillator would
increase its Dissipation of energy and thus, its Noise
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. JMP
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. JMP
REFERENCES power by the same factor. This way, the Phase Noise
would not decrease by increasing the Signal power be-
cause the Signal/Noise power ratio would not change
either. Hence, the decrease of Phase Noise in L- C oscil-
lators as their Signal power rises is an added proof for
this conduction model where carriers do not drift either
in the resistor embedded in their L-C resonators [10,11].
[1] J. B. Johnson, “The Schottky Effect in Low Frequency
Circuits,” Physical Review Letters, Vol. 26, No. 1, 1925,
pp. 71-85. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.26.71
[2] W. Schottky, “Small-Shot Effect and Flicker Effect,”
Physical Review, Vol. 28, No. 6, 1926, pp. 74-103.
[3] J. B. Johnson, “Thermal Agitation of Electricity in Con-
ductors,” Physical Review, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1928, pp. 97-
109. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.32.97
4. Conclusions
Electrical noise and electrical conduction are linked with
the electrical voltage measured simultaneously between
the two terminals of a device whose capacitance C plays
a key role in the origin of this voltage. Due to the dis-
creteness of electric charge, C quantizes the currents in
the device so as to produce discrete Fluctuations of elec-
trical energy that are equivalent to the jump of an elec-
tron between terminals of C. This defines the thermal
action or Fluctuation of electric field in C (EFL) that is the
Cause of a subsequent device reaction (Effect) that Dis-
sipates the energy
[4] J. I. Izpura and J. Malo, “A Fluctuation-Dissipation
Model for Electrical Noise,” Circuits and Systems, Vol. 2,
No. 3, 2011, pp. 112-120. doi:10.4236/cs.2011.23017
[5] H. B. Callen and T. A. Welton, “Irreversibility and Gen-
eralized Noise,” Physical Review, Vol. 83. No. 1, 1951,
pp. 34-40. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.83.34
[6] J. I. Izpura, “Revisiting the Classics to Recover the Physi-
cal Sense in Electrical Noise,” Journal of Modern Physics,
Vol. 2, No. 6, 2011, pp. 457-462.
22Eq C J set by the TA. [7] H. Nyquist, “Thermal Agitation of Electric Charge in
Conductors,” Physical Review, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1928, pp.
110-113. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.32.110
Carriers in Solid State resistors are distributed dipoles
loading electrical energy Uf from the electric field exist-
ing in these devices. This Uf is thus stored in the volume
of the device, not in C. When a TA takes place, one of
these carriers collapses into a long-range dipole between
terminals that stores a Fluctuation E in C due to the
displaced charge. This E is borrowed from the kinetic
energy of the carrier and the energy Uf that was loaded
on this carrier is released uniformly as heat to the volume
that defines the
[8] J. I. Izpura, “On the Electrical Origin of Flicker Noise in
Vacuum Devices,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumenta-
tion and Measurement, Vol. 58, No. 10, 2009, pp. 3592-
3601. doi:10.1109/TIM.2009.2018692
[9] J. I. Izpura, “1/f Electrical Noise in Planar Resistors: The
Joint Effect of a Backgating Noise and an Instrumental
Disturbance,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and
Measurement, Vol. 57, No. 3, 2008, pp. 509-517.
of the device. Only the energy
E stored by each TA in C is Dissipated by the DR that
is a relaxation of energy with lifetime [10] J. I. Izpura and J. Malo, “Thermodynamical Phase Noise
in Oscillators Based on L-C Resonators (Foundations),”
Circuits and Systems, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2012, pp. 48-60.
The Conversion of electrical energy into heat (Joule
Effect) is a process that involves carriers, but it does not
require displacement currents other than those that al-
ready existed when the 2TD was in TE. If temperature
raise is small, this conversion process does not add shot
noise to the shot noise that appears disguised as Johnson
noise in resistors or as
[11] J. Malo and J. I. Izpura, “Thermodynamical Phase Noise
in Oscillators Based on L-C Resonators,” Circuits and
Systems Vol. 3, No. 1, 2012, pp. 61-71.
kTC noise in capacitors. This
Conversion of energy into heat that differs from its Dis-
sipation in electrical noise also explains why Phase Noise
in L-C oscillators decreases as their Signal Power is in-
creased. This model where the classical Resistance is
discrete in time shows the capacitive link that exists be-
tween this Resistance and the Quantum Resistance
K that would be the lowest possible resistance
per carrier in a two-terminal device.
[12] R. Nave, “Microscopic View of Ohm’s Law,” 2005.
[14] I. Langmuir, “The Effect of Space Charge and Initial
Velocities on the Potential Distribution and Thermionic
Current between Parallel Plane Electrodes,” Physical Re-
view, Vol. 21, No. 4, 1923, pp. 419-435.
[15] F. Overney, B. Jeanneret, B. Jeckelmann, B. M. Wood
and J. Schurr, “The Quantized Hall Resistance: Towards a
Primary Standard of Impedance,” Metrologia, Vol. 43,
No. 5, 2006, pp. 409-413.
5. Acknowledgements
Work supported by the Spanish CICYT under the MAT-
2010-18933 project, by the Comunidad Autónoma de
Madrid through its IV-PRICIT Program and by the pro-
ect N˚ 304814 RAPTADIAG of the E.U.
[16] A. K. Jonscher, “Dielectric Relaxation in Solids,” Chelsea
Dielectrics Press Ltd., London, 1983.