Share This Article:

Short-Term Field Decomposition and Physico-Chemical Transformation of Jatropha Pod Biochar in Acidic Mineral Soil

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:996KB) PP. 226-234
DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2014.47025    2,786 Downloads   3,786 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Details regarding field decomposition and transformation of biochar in Malaysia are scarce. The objectives of this study were to investigate the physico-chemical changes experienced by Jatropha pod biochar (JPB) in acidic mineral soil under field condition. Elemental composition was determined using CHNS-O analyzer and surface area with Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. The JPB surface chemistry and structure were studied using the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and 13C solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, respectively. The JPB short-term decomposition was investigated by using a litter bag study and decomposition data were best fitted by a hyperbolic decay model compared to an exponential decay model because no significant dry weight loss was detected after 4 months. Two phases (volatile and near stagnant) were detected for JPB field decomposition. The volatile phase was due to rapid loss of labile fraction such as carbohydrate during the initial 4 months. The near stagnant phase was probably due to adsorption of organic matter and soil minerals. The JPB was fragmented into smaller pieces, encouraging surface adsorption. Redox reaction was prominent as shown by the production of hydroxyl, carboxylic and phenolic functional groups. The JPB became more recalcitrant after 12 months of application to the soils.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Meng, C. , Hanif, A. , Wahid, S. and Abdullah, L. (2014) Short-Term Field Decomposition and Physico-Chemical Transformation of Jatropha Pod Biochar in Acidic Mineral Soil. Open Journal of Soil Science, 4, 226-234. doi: 10.4236/ojss.2014.47025.

References

[1] Glaser, B., Haumaier, L., Guggenberger, G. and Zech, W. (2001) The Terra Preta Phenomenon: A Model for Sustainable Agriculture in the Humid Tropics. Naturwissenchaften, 88, 37-41.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s001140000193
[2] Cheng, C.H., Lehmann, J. and Engelhard, M.H. (2008) Natural Oxidation of Black Carbon in Soils: Changes in Molecular Form and Surface Charge along a Climosequence. Geochemica et Cosmochimica Acta, 72, 1598-1610.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2008.01.010
[3] Cheng, C.H., Lehmann, J., Thies, J.E., Burton, S.D. and Engelhard, M.H. (2006) Oxidation of Black Carbon through Biotic and Abiotic Processes. Organic Geochemistry, 37, 1477-1488.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2006.06.022
[4] Carcaillet, C. (2001) Are Holocene Wood-Charcoal Fragments Stratified in Alphine and Subalphine Soils? Evidence from the Alps Based on AMS 14C Dates. The Holocene, 11, 231-242.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/095968301674071040
[5] Pignatello, J.J., Kwon, S. and Lu, Y. (2006) Effect of Natural Organic Substances on the Surface and Adsortive Properties of Environmental Black Carbon (Char): Attenuation of Surface Activity by Humic and Fulvic Acids. Environmental Science and Technology, 40, 7757-7763.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es061307m
[6] Nguyen, B., Lehmann, J., Kinyangi, J., Smernik, R. and Eaglehard, M.H. (2008) Long-Term Black Carbon Dynamics in Cultivated Soil. Biogeochemistry, 89, 295-308.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10533-008-9220-9
[7] Lehmann, J. and Joseph, S. (2009) Biochar for Environmental Management: An Introduction. In: Lehmann, J. and Joseph, S., Eds., Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology, Earthscan, London, 1-9.
[8] Lehmann, J., Czimczik, C., Laird, D. and Sohi, S. (2009) Stability of Biochar in Soil. In: Lehmann, J. and Joseph, S., Eds., Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology, Earthscan, London, 183-198.
[9] Zimmerman, A.R. (2010) Abiotic and Microbial Oxidation of Laboratory Produced Black Carbon (Biochar). Environmental Science & Technology, 44, 1295-1301.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es903140c
[10] Keith, A., Singh, B. and Singh, B.P. (2011) Interactive Priming of Biochar and Labile Organic Matter Mineralization in a Smectite-Rich Soil. Environmental Science & Technology, 45, 9611-9618.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es202186j
[11] Mitra, S. (2003) Sample Prepartion Techniques in Analytical Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons Inc., Hoboken.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/0471457817
[12] Wardle, D.A., Nilsson, M.C. and Zackrisson. O. (2008) Fire-Derived Charcoal Causes Loss of Forest Humus. Science 320, 629. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1154960
[13] Joseph, S., Peacocke, C., Lehmann, J. and Munroe, P. (2009) Developing a Biochar Classification and Test Methods. In: Lehmann, J. and Joseph, S., Eds., Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology, Earthscan, London, 107-112.
[14] Rice, J.A. and MacCarthy, P. (1991) Statistical Evaluation of the Elemental Composition of Humic Substances. Organic Geochemistry, 17, 635-648.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0146-6380(91)90006-6
[15] Skjemstad, J.O. and Graetz, R.D. (2003) The Impact of Burning on the Nature of Soil Organic Matter in Australia. Agronomia, 37, 85-90.
[16] Warnock, D.D., Mummey, D.L., McBride, B., Major, J., Lehmann, J. and Riling, M.C. (2010) Influences of Non-Herbaceous Biochar on Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Abundances in Roots and Soils: Results from Growth-Chamber and Field Experiments. Applied Soil Ecology, 46, 450-456.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2010.09.002
[17] Kwon, S. and Pignatello, J. (2005) Effect If Natural Organic Substances on the Surface and Adsorptive Properties of Environmental Black Carbon (Char): Pseudo Pore Blockage by Model Lipid Compounds and Its Implications for N2- Probed Surface Properties of Natural Sorbents. Environmental Science and Technology, 39, 7932-7939.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es050976h
[18] Sollins, P., Homann, P. and Caldwell, B.A. (1996) Stabilization and Destabilization of Soil Organic Matter: Mechnisms and Controls. Geoderma, 74, 65-105.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7061(96)00036-5
[19] Lampman, G.M., Pavia, D.L., Kriz, G.S. and Vyvyan, J.R. (2010) Spectroscopy. International Edition, Brooks/Cole, USA.
[20] Kaczmarczyk, B. (2013) FTIR Study of Conjugation in Selected Aromatic Polyazomethines. Journal of Molecular Structure, 1048, 179-184.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molstruc.2013.05.036
[21] Hockaday, W.C., Grannas, A.M., Kim, S. and Hatcher, P.G. (2006) Direct Molecular Evidence for the Degradation and Mobility of Black Carbon in Soils from Ultrahigh-Resolution Mass Spectral Analysis of Dissolved Organic Matter from a Fire-Impacted Forest Soil. Organic Geochemistry, 37, 501-510.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2005.11.003

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.