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As a non-intellectual factor, Mathematics Adversity Quotient plays a crucial role in students’ learning of mathematics. This study adopts the modified mathematics adversity quotient table measuring left-behind and non-left-behind students’ Adversity Quotient in Chetian Minority Junior High School in Ziyuan, Guilin, Guangxi. It is found that the mathematics Adversity Quotient of non-left-behind junior high school students is generally higher than that of left-behind students, so there is a significant difference between them. Based on this situation, questionnaire survey and in-depth interview are adopted to explore the factors affecting the Adversity Quotient of left-behind junior high school students. Finally, it is concluded that home-school communication, teachers’ and parents’ care in school education have a significant influence on student’s Mathematics Adversity Quotient.

Adversity quotient (AQ) is one of the keys to successful mathematics learning. AQ is expected to be able to support students in achieving success when solving everyday problems [

Adversity Quotient was originated in the mid-1990s proposed by a famous American scholar and professional trainer Stoltz [

In 2002, Professor Zhang Dingqiang introduced the adversity quotient of mathematics education and defined its definition in an article called “Investigation and Analysis of Mathematics Adversity Quotient of Junior High School Students in Ethnic Areas” [

This study investigates and analyses the current situation of mathematics adversity quotient of students in Chetian national junior high school, Guilin, Guangxi and also explores the factors affecting the mathematics adversity quotient of left-behind students. The aim is so that rural students can learn better and the teachers have a better teaching reference.

Taking into account the actual situation of the research object, a total of 350 junior high school students from Chetian National Junior High School were selected as the survey objects. The stratified and random sampling method is used to obtain samples. The stratified sampling is based on the year and distribution of the Chetian National Junior High School and random sampling according to the left-behind and non-left-behind students. Specific data can be seen in

After taking into account all the actual situation of the subject under investigation, the investigation is divided into two parts. After the “Mathematics Adversity Quotient Scale” research done by Professor Zhang Dingqiang is complied, The revised questionnaire contains basic information such as the school’s location, staying status, parental relationship, and teacher’s level of interest, as well as mathematics control, ownership, reach, and endurance level test. The basic information of the student mainly selects the corresponding answer according to the actual situation, and the items of the four dimensions of the mathematical inverse quotation are scored by 1 - 5 points. The test items have a total of 250 indicators. Secondly, in order to make the scale more suitable for the surveyed subjects, this survey combines the opinions of 13 graduate students and 3 teachers to modify and delete inappropriate items. After revision, the test will be adopted to the left-behind students of Chetian National Junior High School, Guilin, Guangxi. Firstly we will investigate and analyse the adversity quotient between left-behind and non-left-behind students in the area. The scale will be from 1-5 where the higher the score, the higher their adversity quotient. After seeing the survey result, questionnaires and in-depth interviews are done to know the factors affecting the mathematics adversity quotient of left-behind junior high school students. The questionnaires and interviews mainly focuses on the level of parental care, parents expectation as well as frequency level of communication in a school-level homeschooling and teacher care degree.

Category | Students Situation | Gender | Grade | Ethnic Group | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Left-Behind Junior High School Student | Non-Left- Behind Junior High School Student | Male | Female | 7th Grade | 8th Grade | 9th Grade | Han Tribe | Minority Ethnic Group | |

Number of People | 175 | 175 | 168 | 182 | 115 | 125 | 110 | 228 | 122 |

The questionnaire is conducted for the students from Chetian National Junior High School, Guilin, Guangxi. Guidance for the students was conducted before the test and follow-up interviews were conducted on the problems that arise. There were a total of 350 questionnaires distributed and only 296 of them were valid of which 96, 107, 93 are valid for 7th grade, 8th grade and 9th grade respectively.

The study uses Microsoft Excel and Spss 24.0 for data processing. It mainly uses independent t-test sampling and variance analysis. In terms reliability, the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient is 0.891. For mathematical control, ownership, reach, and endurance, their Cronbach’s alpha coefficient is 0.922, 0.954, 0.913, 0.806 respectively (

The KMO value of the factor analysis scale is 0.886. This indicates that it is a suitable factor analysis (

According to Hendriana & Sumarmo [

Cronbach’s Alpha | N of Items | |
---|---|---|

Reliability | 0.891 | 20 |

Mathematical Control | 0.922 | 5 |

Mathematical Ownership | 0.954 | 5 |

Mathematical Reach | 0.913 | 5 |

Mathematical Endurance | 0.806 | 5 |

KMO sampling homogeneity | 0.886 | |
---|---|---|

Bartlett sphericity test | Chi-Square Distribution | 4541.567 |

Degree of Freedom | 190 | |

Significant | 0.000 |

The survey concluded that the mathematics adversity quotient of left-behind and non-left-behind junior high school students is 58.58 and 63.82. The non-left-behind student has a high adversity quotient compared to left-behind junior high school students (see

Category | Mathematics Adversity Quotient | Mathematical Control | Mathematical Ownership | Mathematical Reach | Mathematical Endurance | Comparison |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Left-behind student | 58.58 | 14.76 | 13.10 | 13.88 | 16.83 | 4 > 1 > 3 > 2 |

Non-left- behind student | 63.84 | 15.30 | 15.82 | 15.45 | 17.27 | 4 > 2 > 3 > 1 |

Mathematics adversity quotient | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Sum of square | df | Mean square | F | Significant | |

Between the group | 2048.175 | 1 | 2048.175 | 11.549 | 0.001 |

Inside the group | 52,138.686 | 294 | 177.342 | ||

Total | 54,186.861 | 295 |

The survey concluded that the mathematics adversity quotient of left-behind male/female student and non-left-behind male/female students are 62.48/55.53/68.73/57.80. With this we can see that the mathematics adversity quotient of male students is generally higher than female students. The analysis on the variance of gender for mathematics adversity quotient on left-behind and non-left-behind students is shown in

According to the survey, the mathematics adversity of left-behind and non-left-behind student in the minority school is 51.55, 58.38, 71.25/50.62, 62.90, 72.09. Comparison in the grades of mathematics adversity quotient in minority areas is shown in

Student Situation | Gender | Equalisation | Standard Deviation | F Value | Significant (P) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Left-Behind Student | Male | 62.48 | 12.974 | 2.638 | 0.001 |

Female | 55.53 | 11.634 | |||

Non-Left-Behind Student | Male | 68.73 | 11.695 | 8.679 | 0.000 |

Female | 57.80 | 14.261 |

Student Situation | Class | Equalisation | Standard Deviation | F Value | Significant (P) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Left-Behind Student | 9th grade | 71.25 | 12.152 | 35.873 | 0.000 |

8th grade | 58.38 | 10.474 | |||

7th grade | 51.55 | 9.464 | |||

Non-Left-Behind Student | 9th grade | 72.09 | 9.429 | 45.128 | 0.000 |

8th grade | 62.90 | 12.275 | |||

7th grade | 50.62 | 11.866 |

According to the survey, the mathematics adversity quotient of the Han and minority ethnic group of the left-behind student that lives in the minority areas are 59.69 and 58.05. While the mathematics adversity of the Han and minority ethnic group of the non-left-behind student are 62.46 and 64.39. The comparison of the students’ ethnic group with the mathematics adversity quotient in minority areas is shown in

The influence of parental concern on the mathematics adversity quotient of left-behind junior high school student in the rural area

We believe that parents’ concern is one of the factors affecting the students’ mathematics adversity quotient. The survey concluded that the students’ average adversity quotient score of parents who often, occasionally, sometimes and never cares are 62.21, 61.66, 53.81, 52.65 respectively (

The influence of parents’ expectation on the mathematics adversity quotient of left-behind junior high school student in the rural area

According to the survey, the parents of the left-behind student have different expectations for their children’s academic qualifications. Students’ mathematics adversity quotient with an academic qualification of junior high school, high school, university and post-graduate and above has a mathematics adversity quotient of 59.19, 56.74, 57.74 and 63.53 respectively (

Student Situation | Ethnic Group | Equalisation | Standard Deviation | F Value | Significant (P) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Left-Behind Student | Han Tribe | 59.69 | 12.658 | 0.007 | 0.456 |

Minority Ethnic Group | 58.05 | 12.714 | |||

Non-Left- Behind Student | Han Tribe | 62.46 | 12.939 | 0.387 | 0.457 |

Minority Ethnic Group | 64.39 | 14.387 |

Student Situation | Parental Concern | Equalisation | Standard Deviation | F Value | Significant (P) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Left-Behind Student | Often Cares | 62.21 | 13.264 | 5.870 | 0.001 |

Sometimes Cares | 61.66 | 12.282 | |||

Rarely Cares | 53.81 | 10.617 | |||

Never Cares | 52.65 | 12.644 |

Student Situation | Parents’ Expectation | Equalisation | Standard Deviation | F Value | Significant (P) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Left-Behind Student | Junior High School Graduate | 59.19 | 11.864 | 1.291 | 0.280 |

High School Graduate | 56.74 | 13.785 | |||

University Graduate | 57.74 | 10.939 | |||

Master Graduate and Above | 63.53 | 15.113 |

The influence of home-school communication frequency on the mathematics adversity quotient of left-behind junior high school student in the rural area

According to the survey, the students’ mathematics adversity quotient who frequently, sometimes, occasionally, never communicate between home and school have a mathematics adversity quotient of 64.92, 59.07, 57.59, and 54.47 respectively (

The influence of teachers’ concern on the mathematics adversity quotient of left-behind junior high school student in the rural area

The survey concluded that the students’ average adversity quotient score of teachers who often, occasionally, sometimes and never care are 67.61, 59.77, 54.32, and 44.91 respectively (

Student Situation | School Communication Frequency | Equalisation | Standard Deviation | F Value | Significant (P) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Left-Behind Student | Frequently Communicate | 64.92 | 11.262 | 3.693 | 0.013 |

Sometimes Communicate | 59.07 | 12.794 | |||

Occasionally Communicate | 57.59 | 11.919 | |||

Never Communicate | 54.47 | 12.693 |

Student Situation | Teachers’ Concern | Equalisation | Standard Deviation | F Value | Significant (P) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Left-Behind Student | Often Cares | 67.61 | 11.249 | 44.952 | 0.000 |

Sometimes Cares | 59.77 | 7.670 | |||

Rarely Cares | 54.32 | 8.022 | |||

Never Cares | 44.91 | 7.266 |

Based on the results, mathematics adversity quotient of non-left-behind students is significantly higher than that of left-behind junior high school students. The mathematical ownership of left-behind students is generally low which indicates that they find it difficult to learn mathematics when encountering setbacks or problems. In another test, it shows that there is a significant difference in the mathematics adversity quotient when comparing gender and class grades but there is no significant difference when comparing different ethnic groups [

As there is a significant difference in the mathematics adversity quotient between left-behind and non-left-behind junior high school students, there are factors that affect the low adversity quotient of left-behind students. The research mainly focuses on the junior high school in rural areas and it will mainly concentrate on the family and school aspect.

Because the degree of parents’ concern has a profound impact on the students’ mathematics adversity quotient, therefore family education should be the centre. Even when parents’ go out to work for a longer time, they should still keep in touch and communicate with their children and teachers, paying attention to their children’s mental journey when learning mathematics in order to build a basis for adversity quotient. Educator Li Hao said that “hardship” is like an indispensable spiritual nutrition for the growth of children. That is why when a child encounters a mathematical dilemma rather than blaming them, we should encourage the child to face the problem with a positive attitude and guide the child to take effective measures to get out of the problem. Also, don’t just focus in the child’s mathematics score but rather pay more attention to the learning process. Affirmation, appropriate praise and incentives are an effective way to guide the children and improve their mathematics adversity quotient [

As a part of qualified education, a mental health education should be included in the teaching of various subjects. However, under the guidance of junior high school entrance examination, only a few people pay attention to the students’ mental health. That is why it is important for a mathematics teacher to be the core position to train adversity quotient by using class time effectively to teach mental health education. For most junior high school student in the rural area finds mathematics to be a hard subject. Their teachers should say more attending to the left-behind students in which they have a low adversity quotient [

We would like to thank to Guangxi Normal University for the research fund which has been given to the researcher. This paper is based from Guangxi in 2016 “A study on the mode of joint training of Postgraduates—Taking the direction of mathematics course and teaching theory as an example” (JGY2016003) and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Postgraduate Education Innovation Project “Attribution Analysis of Mathematical Inverse Quotient of Junior Middle School Students in Minority Areas Based on NVIVO Coding” (XYCSZ2019084).

There is no conflict of internet regarding the publication of this paper.

Qin, L., Zhou, Y. and Tanu, W.T. (2019) Paper Title. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 7, 331-342. https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2019.710028