This work discovers and proves that all the photons/quantum particles have a “ Nucleus of mass and charge.” The nucleus is located offcenter in the particles. The constructive, destructive and intermediate Interference phenomena decisively discover and prove the presence of only one nucleus of the mass located offcenter in a photon, like an atomic nucleus . The mass in the nucleus of a photon develops varying forces to move the photon as a wave. The WaveParticle Duality is the most significant proof of such a nucleus of mass. The formation of an electromagnetic wave by a photon proves the presence of a charge in the nucleus of the photon. The Quantum Theory, developed about 100 years back, simplified the understanding of matter and energy at the atomic/subatomic levels. However, the Quantum Theory remains incomplete and cannot explain even a single quantum phenomenon. The New Quantum Theory, developed in the year 2012, is based on the similarity of an atomic nucleus as well as the solar system with the Sun as its nucleus of the mass and the charge. The New Quantum Theory explains all the Quantum Phenomena and matches with the Classical Mechanics as well as the Theory of Electromagnetism. The experiments described in this work, using high precision instruments, determine the mass, the charge and the diameter of a photon/quantum particle.
Everything around us consists of very tiny atoms. Every atom has a nucleus of the mass > 99.9% occupying only negligibly small volume. The nucleus of an atom is not in the center of the atom but located offcenter. Similarly, the solar system has the Sun as its nucleus having >99.86% mass and occupying only negligibly small volume. The solar system also has the Sun in the offcenter position. The Sun is the most significant source of electromagnetic radiations.
Based on the above facts of nature, the New Quantum Theory [
“A photon/quantum particle has a nucleus of the mass and the charge located offcenter.”
A nucleus of the mass and the charge, located offcenter in the spinning photon/quantum particle, bestows unique characteristics and displays strange behaviours. This constitutional essence of a photon/quantum particle explains not only the WaveParticle Duality but all the Quantum Phenomena and completes the Quantum Theory.
The New Quantum Theory can also explain the phenomenon such as “Raman Effect” with the additional information about the external forces (varying forces in the molecular bond of a compound). The “Multiple Slits in Series” experiments describe the procedure to determine the mass, the charge and the diameter of a photon. The physical energies of a photon calculate the mass of the photon by the formula m = af where “a” is a constant.
Unlike the Quantum Theory which does not match with the Classical Mechanics, the New Quantum Theory is consistent with the Classical Mechanics as well as the Theory of Electromagnetism. Moreover, the New Quantum Theory can also predict the interactions of the photons/quantum particles with other objects at the quantum level for the new developments in the scientific and commercial segments including the improvements in the PV cells.
All the photons/quantum particles display mysterious phenomena known for the last several centuries. For these fundamental particles, only nature provides the hints to solve their mysteries.
A mysterious particle of the photon has its mysteries hidden inside. The following characteristics of the photons and their analysis discover the mysteries hidden within a photon:
 A photon never travels in a straight line; it moves like a helix/a smooth space curve in all the three planes or as a wave in a single twodimensional plane.
 A photon travels with an average speed of light in the direction of its travel, irrespective of its frequency and the amplitude of the wave it forms.
 A photon always spins in one plane only. This plane does not change unless and until an external force or object interacts with the photon. A polarised photon keeps on spinning in the same plane and can travel hundreds of light years.
 A photon continuously changes its velocity and the direction to move as a wave without any external force. Whereas, according to Newton’s laws of motion, a force is necessary to change the velocity and the direction of a particle.
 Therefore, a photon must develop the “Internal Forces” from within in all the 3 X, Y & Zdirections to form a helix or the forces only in 2directions to form a wave in a single twodimensional plane.
 The magnitudes of these internal forces in the different directions change continuously with the spin of the photon to move the photon as a wave.
 A mass generates the force on acceleration. For a photon to generate variable internal forces, it must have a “mass” along with accelerations in the different directions.
 Since the mass of the photon is constant, the acceleration/deceleration in the different directions must vary continuously to generate variable internal forces in the different directions to move the photon as a wave.
 A spinning photon with uniformly distributed mass or the mass in the center cannot develop internal forces to move the photon as a wave.
 However, if a photon has its mass in an offcenter position, the mass rotates at a constant linear speed with the spin of the photon around the center of the photon. The continuous rotation of the mass develops acceleration/deceleration in the different directions continuously.
 Therefore, the mass in the spinning photon experiences variable accelerations/decelerations and develops variable internal forces in the different directions.
 Only the presence of a mass, located offcenter in a photon, develops the variable forces in the different directions by accelerating/decelerating with the spin of the photon. These internal forces, created by the mass of a photon, move the photon as a wave.
 Similarly, a charge located offcenter in the spinning photon accelerates/decelerates and generates the electric and the magnetic fields of the varying intensities and directions to form an electromagnetic wave.
 Both the mass and charge coexist in a socalled nucleus located offcenter in the photon. There is nothing unique about the existence of such a nucleus in the photons; all the atoms have a similar nucleus of the mass and the charge.
 Similarly, all the quantum particles must also have a nucleus of the mass and the charge located offcenter. An electron has a definite mass, always moves as a wave and forms an electromagnetic wave due to its charge. An electron has to have both the mass and the charge located offcenter in a nucleus to travel as a wave and generate a3 dimensional electromagnetic wave.
 A photon/quantum particle spins in the plane consisting the circular path of the nucleus and the center of the photon. The nucleus of the mass and the charge rotates in this plane only.
 It appears that all the tiny particles in the universe have a nucleus of the mass and the charge located offcenter. Exceptions, if any, are rare.
The above peculiarities of a photon indicate the presence of a nucleus of the mass and the charge located offcenter in the photon, as stated in the New Quantum Theory.
the direction of travel of the photon (Xaxis) with center of the photon as the reference point. The phase angle or the angular position of the nucleus from the Xaxis increases from 0˚ to 360˚ with the spin of the photon in a single wave cycle. From 360˚, the next cycle of the wave of the photon starts again from 0˚.
A spinning photon develops the following forces:
a) Mechanical Forces:
If the angle of the nucleus is θ_{1} from Xaxis and the photon spins from the phase angle θ_{1} to θ_{1} + dθ_{1} in time dt, the force in Xaxis develops as under:
 The circumference of the rotating Nucleus: 2πr
 The linear speed of the rotating Nucleus: 2πrf
 The velocity of the nucleus in the Xaxis at phase angle θ_{1}: 2 π r f sin θ 1
 The velocity of the nucleus in Xaxis at phase angle θ_{1} + dθ_{1}: 2 π r f sin ( θ 1 + d θ 1 )
 The change in velocity in Xaxis in time dt: 2 π r f { sin ( θ 1 + d θ 1 ) − sin θ 1 }
 Acceleration in Xaxis: 2 π r f { sin ( θ 1 + d θ 1 ) − sin θ 1 } / d t
 The force developed by the mass in the Xaxis:
2 π r f m { sin ( θ 1 + d θ 1 ) − sin θ 1 } / d t (1)
If the phase angles of the nucleus in the photon are θ_{2} & θ_{3} in Yaxis & Zaxis respectively, the mass in the nucleus of the photon develops the following forces:
 The force developed by the Nucleus:
2 π r f m { sin ( θ 2 + d θ 2 ) − sin θ 2 } / d t (2)
In the Yaxis
 The force developed by the Nucleus:
2 π r f m { sin ( θ 3 + d θ 3 ) − sin θ 3 } / d t (3)
In the Zaxis
where:
 The frequency of the photon: f
 Mass of the photon: m
 The distance of the nucleus from the center: r
 The phase angle of the photon: θ
 Incremental change in phase angle: dθ degree in time dt
Therefore, the mass in the nucleus of a spinning photon develops the forces of the variable magnitudes in all the three directions. Depending on the phase angle θ, the directions of these forces reverse in each cycle of the wave.
In case of a linearly polarised photon, the forces develop in only two axes. If θ is the phase angle from Xaxis, the forces develop as under:
 The force developed by the Nucleus:
2 π r f m { sin ( θ + d θ ) − sin θ } / d t (4)
in the horizontal Xaxis
 The force developed by the nucleus:
2 π r f m { cos ( θ + d θ ) − cos θ } / d t (5)
in vertical Yaxis
The velocities, accelerations and the internal forces of the photon in the different directions vary with the values of sinθ & cosθ in the range between +1 to (−)1 with the spin of the photon from 0˚ to 360˚ to complete one cycle of the wave.
b) Electromagnetic Force:
As a photon spins and moves, the nucleus of the mass and the charge located offcenter accelerates/decelerates. Any moving charge generates both the electric as well as the magnetic fields. The charge in the photon generates the electromagnetic force along with the electromagnetic wave with the varying intensities and the changing directions.
A nucleus of the mass & the charge located offcenter in a photon/quantum particle generates the mechanical forces as well as the electromagnetic forces.
THE FACTS:
 The mass and energy always exist together.
 The energy is only the “quantitative property” of a matter. No form of energy can exist without an object of mass. Any form of energy needs an object of mass to hold the energy.
 Similarly, every object of mass has some form of the energy.
 A photon has its mass which is always constant. A photon possesses energy in various physical forms in addition to its mass.
 Planck’s equation E = hf relates to the physical forms of energies of a photon.
 The mass of a photon is proportional to its frequency. Equation m = af calculates the “Mass (m)” of the photon of frequency f, where “a” is constant (a = 1.474499440284 × 10^{−50} kg⋅sec) [
 Einstein’s equation e = mc^{2} relates to the conversion of energy to mass and vice versa involving the nuclear conversion. This energy “e” is in addition to the physical forms of the energy’s “E” possessed by the photon. Both the forms of the energies “e” and “E” relate to the different types of the energies.
 The mass of a photon can be calculated theoretically as well as determined by the experiments using high precision instruments.
 A nucleus of the mass and the charge exists in an offcenter position and rotates around the center of the spinning photon. The nucleus of the mass and the charge continuously accelerates and decelerates to create the variable mechanical forces and the electromagnetic forces to exhibit all the quantum phenomena.
THE MYTH:
 The Photons have no mass & no charge.
The above myth must go.
All the Quantum Phenomena are the proofs and can only take place if a photon has a “nucleus of mass and charge, located offcenter.” Some of the important Quantum Phenomena as the proof of the presence of a nucleus of mass and the charge in a nucleus located offcenter in the photons are presented below:
In the polarisation phenomenon, a photon/quantum particle forms a wave in a single twodimensional plane. The continuously accelerating mass develops forces in a single twodimensional plane to form a wave by a polarized photon. The following characteristics describe the Polarisation Phenomenon:
 A critical feature of a photon is: “A photon spins only in one plane and continues to spin in the same plane unless it interacts with an external force/object.”
 If a photon/quantum particle is a uniform particle with zero mass, there is nothing to restrict the plane of the spin of the photon and the formation of the wave in one single plane only. The photon is always at the liberty to keep on changing the plane of spin and to form the waves in the different planes, in such a case, the polarisation phenomenon for a photon with zero mass cannot take place.
 Only the forces, developed in a single twodimensional plane by the mass in the nucleus located offcenter in a photon/quantum particle, limit the photon particle to form a wave in a single twodimensional plane and display the polarisation phenomenon. The direction of travel of a linearly polarized photon confines in the plane of the circular path of the nucleus/spin of the photon.
 The axis of rotation of the nucleus or the spin of the photon is the same and always perpendicular to the direction of travel of the polarised photon.
 As a polarised photon spins and travels in Xdirection, the mass in the nucleus located offcenter accelerates/decelerates to develop variable forces only in X & Ydirections. These forces, from within the photon, form a wave in a single twodimensional plane.

 The electric field wave of a polarised photon forms in a single twodimensional plane; but the magnetic field wave always forms in the threedimensional planes.
There are two types of polarisation phenomena:
 Linear Polarisation Phenomenon:
Already explained above.
 Circular Polarisation Phenomenon:
If the direction of travel of a photon is outside the plane of its spin, the photon is circularly polarised. For a circularly polarised photon, the axis of rotation of the photon is not perpendicular to the direction of travel of the photon.
A circularly polarised photon moves as a smooth curve in threedimensional space/a helix. The curve may be either clockwise or anticlockwise.
Whereas, the photon spins in the plane consisting the nucleus of the mass and the center of the photon, the circularly polarised photon travels in a direction outside this plane. Therefore, the whole photon along with the nucleus of the mass moves in all the 3 X, Y & Zdirections and creates variable internal forces F_{X,} F_{Y} & F_{Z} in all the X, Y & Zdirections respectively.
These variable internal forces in X, Y & Zdirections move the photon to form a wave in the threedimensional plane.
The Polarisation Phenomenon discovers and proves the presence of a mass located offcenter in a photon.
“Interference” is the most critical phenomenon of the Quantum Physics. The Interference phenomenon discovered the Dual WaveParticle nature of the photon’s way back in the year 1801 by the Double Slit experiment.
 The two photons of the same frequency superpose in the different phases to display different types of Interferences with different amplitudes of the resultant waves.
 The phase angle of a photon refers to the angle of its nucleus from the direction of travel (generally, the Xaxis) with the center of the photon as the reference. At the start of a new wave cycle or the origin, the phase angle/angular position of the nucleus or the photon is 0˚. As the photon spins, the nucleus of the mass and the charge rotates around the center of the photon, and the phase angle increases from 0˚ up to 360˚ and from the 360˚ a new wave cycle of the photon starts.
 If the photons are uniform particles with no substructure, whatever are their orientations or the phase angles or the degree of spins, all the photons remain identical with no difference. Therefore, all the photons of the same frequency must display the same character/properties in all the 360˚ spins or the phase angles, and the phase angles or the degree of the spin of the photons has no meaning.
 In the above situation of the photons as the uniform particles, the different types of the Interference Phenomena are not possible.
 The phase angle or the degree of spin of a photon from 0˚ to 360˚ refers to the angular position of a substructure in the photon. This proves the presence of a substructure in a photon.
 The 0˚ phase angle of a photon indicates the position of the nucleus (substructure of the photon) at 0˚ angular position from the Xaxis with the center of the photon as the reference. At the 0˚, the photon is at the origin (0, 0) or the start point of a new cycle of the wave.
 As the photon spins and forms a wave the nucleus of the mass and the charge located offcenter rotates around the center of the photon and the phase angle or the angular position of the nucleus increases from 0˚ to 360˚ in the photon in one wave cycle of the wave.
 The two photons of the same frequency can superpose in the different phases to display different types of the Interference effects.
If the two photons of the same frequency and in the same direction superpose, the two photons can join only in side by side position. Both the superposed photons keep on spinning in their direction of spin and move together. The mass in each photon being close enough, the strong force is applied to keep the superposed photons together.
In the Constructive Interference of the two photons, the amplitude of the resultant wave doubles. When the two photons of the same frequency and in the same phase superpose, the angular positions of the nuclei of both the photons are also the same as shown in the part (a) of
 The force developed by the nucleus of: 2 π r f m { cos ( θ + d θ ) − cos θ } / d t
Photon No. 1 in Vertical Yaxis
 The force developed by the nucleus of: 2 π r f m { cos ( θ + d θ ) − cos θ } / d t
Photon No. 2 in Vertical Yaxis
 Total Force developed by the nuclei of: 4 π r f m { cos ( θ + d θ ) − cos θ } / d t
Photons 1 & 2 in Vertical Yaxis
If a photon has zero mass, it cannot develop any force to double the amplitude.
Only the presence of a mass in each photon generates the vertical forces in both the photons to double the amplitude. The phenomenon of Constructive Interference’ with the double amplitude of the resultant wave discovers and proves: “A Photon has Mass.”
Even though the Constructive Interference proves the presence of the mass in the photons, it does not indicate the location of the mass in the photon.
In the Destructive Interference, the two photons superpose with a phase difference of π and form the resultant wave with the zero amplitude. The part (b) of
The nuclei of the mass of both the spinning photons have a phase angle difference of π. The directions of the forces developed by the mass in the nucleus of each photon are always opposite to each other with a phase difference of π. If the phase angle of the Photon No. 1 is (θ) and the phase angle of the Photon No. 2 is (θ + π). The two photons develop forces in the vertical direction as under:
 The force developed by the nucleus of: 2 π r f m { cos ( θ + d θ ) − cos θ } / d t
Photon No. 1 in Vertical Yaxis
 The force developed by the nucleus of: 2 π r f m { cos ( θ + π + d θ ) − cos ( θ + π ) } / d t
Photon No. 2 in Vertical Yaxis
Or: − 2 π r f m { cos ( θ + d θ ) − cos θ } / d t
 The resultant force developed by the nuclei: Zero
Of both the Photons in Vertical Yaxis
Since the net vertical force of both the photons is always zero, the amplitude of the resultant wave is also always the zero. The Destructive Interference phenomenon is not possible if the mass is uniformly distributed or in the center of the photon. In such a situation, whatever is the phase difference between the two photons, only the Constructive Interference can take place.
The Destructive Interference is possible only in a condition: “The location of the nucleus of the mass is in the offcenter position in the photons.” However, the Destructive Interference phenomenon can also take place even if a photon has more than one nucleus of the mass, located offcenter in the photon.
The phenomenon of Destructive Interference with the zero amplitude of the resultant wave discovers and proves: “A photon has the mass located in an offcenter position.”
When the two photons, with a phase difference other than 0˚ or π, superpose the resultant wave with the amplitude > 0 but < double the amplitude forms due to the phenomenon of the Intermediate Interference.
If the two photons of the same frequency with phase angles θ_{1} & θ_{2} interfere, the mass in the nucleus of each photon develops the force in the vertical direction as under:
 The force developed by the nucleus of: 2 π r f m { cos ( θ 1 + d θ 1 ) − cos θ 1 } / d t
Photon No. 1 in Vertical Yaxis
 The force developed by the nucleus of: 2 π r f m { cos ( θ 2 + d θ 2 ) − cos θ 2 } / d t
Photon No. 2 in Vertical Yaxis
 Total force developed by the nuclei of both the Photons in Vertical Yaxis:
2 π r f m { cos ( θ 1 + d θ 1 ) − cos θ 1 } / d t + 2 π r f m { cos ( θ 2 + d θ 2 ) − cos θ 2 } / d t
The amplitude of the resultant wave depends on the difference in the phase angles θ_{1} & θ_{2} of the two photons. If a photon has more than one nucleus of the mass, the two photons on intermediate interference must form a resultant wave with two or more peaks. However, the resultant wave has only a single peak (there is no reference of the resultant wave with the Intermediate Interference of more than one peak). The single peak of the resultant wave confirms the presence of only one nucleus of the mass located offcenter in a photon.
The phenomenon of Intermediate Interference produces the resultant wave with the sum of the amplitudes of both the photons discovers and proves:
“A photon has only one nucleus of the mass located in the offcenter position.”
Note: The horizontal forces developed by the mass in the nucleus of the photons are not required here to prove the presence of only one nucleus of the mass located offcenter in the photons.
The Dual WaveParticle nature of a photon awaits explanation since the year 1801. A particle of a photon/quantum always moves like a wave and displays the properties of the particle as well as the wave. Only the New Quantum Theory explains the WaveParticle Duality. The followings describe the characteristics of a linearly polarised photon traveling in the horizontal Xaxis and forming a wave in XY plane:
 A photon particle continuously changes its velocity and direction to move as a wave.
 The photon spins and completes one cycle of the wave in 360˚ spins with half the wave above the line of the travel and the other half below. Both the halves have a single peak.
 For a wave starting from the origin (0, 0), the photon moves up with the maximum vertical velocity in the Yaxis which reduces to zero at 90˚ phase angle. The photon descends from 90˚ phase angle achieving the maximum downward velocity at 180˚ phase angle but this velocity again turns to zero at 270˚ phase angle, and from there the photon ascends.
 In addition to the speed of light in the horizontal Xaxis, the mass in the nucleus of the photon also develops the acceleration/velocity in the horizontal direction. Therefore, the horizontal velocity of a photon varies continuously in a wave cycle with the speed of light being always the average in a single wave cycle.
 The horizontal velocity of the photon (due to the mass in the nucleus) is zero at the origin, the maximum at 90˚ phase angle, again zero at 180˚ phase angle and the maximum in the reverse direction at 270˚ phase angle.
 The up and down cyclical movement of a photon to form a wave is only possible by the presence of a mass located offcenter in the photon. The mass, in the nucleus of a photon located offcenter, continuously accelerates/decelerates to produce variable forces in both the horizontal Xaxis and the vertical Yaxis.
The following is the science of the “Formation of a wave by a particle of a linearly polarised photon”:
 The horizontal velocity of a photon at phase angle θ: 2 π r f sin θ + c
 The force developed by the Nucleus: 2 π r f m { sin ( θ + d θ ) − sin θ } / d t
in the horizontal Xdirection
 The vertical velocity of a photon at phase angle θ: 2 π r f cos θ
 The force developed by the nucleus: 2 π r f m { cos ( θ + d θ ) − cos θ } / d t
in the vertical Ydirection
where, “c” is the average speed of light in Xaxis.
The horizontal velocity and the force in the horizontal direction are the functions of sinθ. The vertical velocity and force in the vertical direction are the functions of cosθ. With the spin of the photon from 0˚ to 360˚ phase angle, the values of sinθ and cosθ change between +1 and (−)1. For the same frequency photons, the values of r, f & m_{ }are constant. The internal forces, developed from within the photon, move the photon as a wave as under:
A) Formation of 1^{st} Quarter of Wave: Phase Angle from 0˚ to 90˚:
 At 0˚ phase angle or the origin of a new wave cycle, the value of Sin θ is zero. Therefore, the horizontal velocity (due to the mass in the photon) is also zero. In this quarter as the photon spins and moves from 0˚ to 90˚ phase angle, the value of sinθ increases from 0 to +1.
 The horizontal velocity and the horizontal force change from 0˚ to 90˚ as under:
The horizontal velocity: Zero at 0˚ phase angle and the maximum at 90˚
The horizontal force: The maximum force at 0˚ phase angle and reduces to zero at 90˚
 At 90˚ phase angle, the value of sinθ is 1. Therefore, the horizontal velocity at 90˚ phase angle grows to the maximum.
 At 0˚ phase angle or the origin of a new wave cycle, the value of cosθ is +1. Therefore, its vertical velocity (due to the mass in the photon) is the maximum. In this quarter as the photon spins and moves from 0˚ to 90˚ phase angle, the value of cosθ decreases from +1 to 0.
 The vertical velocity and the vertical force change from 0˚ to 90˚ as under:
The vertical velocity: The maximum at 0˚ phase angle and reduces to zero at 90˚
The vertical force: Zero at 0˚ phase angle and increases to the maximum at 90˚ in (−)Yaxis
 At 90˚ phase angle, the value of cosθ is zero. Therefore, the vertical velocity at 90˚ phase angle turns to zero, and the photon cannot move further up anymore in the Yaxis from the phase angle 90˚. The photon reaches the highest point of the wave at 90˚ phase angle.
B) Formation of 2^{nd} Quarter of Wave: Phase Angle from 90˚ to 180˚:
 At 90˚ phase angle, the value of sinθ is +1 with the maximum horizontal velocity. In this quarter as the photon spins and moves from 90˚ to 180˚ phase angle, the value of sinθ decreases from +1 to 0.
 The horizontal velocity and the horizontal force change from 90˚ to 180˚ as under:
The horizontal velocity: The maximum at 90˚ phase angle and reduces to zero at 180˚^{ }
The horizontal force: Zero at 90˚ phase angle and increases to the maximum at 180˚ in (−)Xaxis
 At 180˚ phase angle, the value of sinθ is zero. Therefore, the horizontal velocity at 180˚ phase angle (due to the mass in the photon) turns to zero.
 At 90˚ phase angle, the value of cosθ is zero with the zero vertical velocity. In this quarter as the photon spins and moves from 90˚ to 180˚ phase angle, the value of cosθ decreases from 0 to (−)1.
 The vertical velocity and the vertical force change from 90˚ to 180˚ as under:
The vertical velocity: Zero at 90˚ phase angle and increases to the maximum at 180˚ in (−)Yaxis
The vertical force: The maximum at 90˚ phase angle and reduces to zero at 180˚ in (−)Yaxis
 At 180˚ phase angle, the value of cosθ is (−)1 with the maximum vertical velocity in (−)Yaxis and the photon completes the upper half cycle of the wave formation. From 180˚ phase angle, the photon moves below the line of travel (Xaxis) of the photon.
C) Formation of 3^{rd} Quarter of Wave: Phase Angle from 180˚ to 270˚
 At 180˚ phase angle, the value of sinθ is zero with the zerohorizontal velocity (due to the mass of the photon). In this quarter as the photon spins and moves from 180˚ to 270˚ phase angle, the value of sinθ decreases from 0 to (−)1.
 The horizontal velocity and the horizontal force change from 180˚ to 270˚ as under:
The horizontal velocity: Zero at 180˚ phase angle and increases to the maximum at 270˚ in (−)Xaxis
The horizontal force: The maximum at 180˚ phase angle and reduces to zero at 270˚ in (−)Xaxis
 At 270˚ phase angle, the value of sinθ is (−)1 with the maximum horizontal velocity in (−)Xaxis.
 At 180˚ phase angle, the value of cosθ is (−)1 with the maximum vertical downward velocity. In this quarter as the photon spins and moves from 180˚ to 270˚ phase angle, the value of cosθ increases from (−)1 to 0.
 The vertical velocity and the vertical force change from 180˚ to 270˚ as under:
The vertical velocity: The maximum at 180˚ phase angle in (−)Yaxis and reduces to zero at 270˚
The vertical force: Zero at 180˚ phase angle and increases to the maximum at 270˚ in +Yaxis
 At 270˚ phase angle, the value of cosθ is zero with the zerovertical velocity; therefore, the photon cannot go down further. The photon reaches the lowest point of the wave at 270˚ phase angle.
D) Formation of 4^{th} Quarter of Wave: Phase Angle from 270˚ to 360˚
 At 270^{0} phase angle the value of Sin θ is (−)1 with the maximum horizontal velocity (due to the mass of the photon) in the (−)Xdirection. In this quarter as the photon spins and moves from 270˚ to 360˚ phase angle, the value of sinθ increases from (−)1 to 0.
 The horizontal velocity and the horizontal force change from 270˚ to 360˚^{ }as under:
The horizontal velocity: The maximum at 270˚ phase angle in (−) Xaxis and reduces to zero at 360˚
The horizontal force: Zero at 270˚ phase angle and increases to the maximum at 360˚ in +Xaxis
 At 360˚ phase angle, the value of sinθ is zero; therefore, the horizontal velocity at 360˚ turns to zero.
 At 270˚ phase angle the value of cosθ is zero with the zerovertical velocity. In this quarter as the photon spins and moves from 270˚ to 360˚ phase angle, the value of cosθ increases from 0 to +1.
 The vertical velocity and the vertical force change from 270˚ to 360˚ as under:
The vertical velocity: Zero at 270˚ phase angle and increases to the maximum at 360˚ in +Yaxis
The vertical force: The maximum at 270˚ phase angle and reduces to zero at 360˚ in +Yaxis
 At 360˚ phase angle, the value of cosθ is +1 with the maximum vertical velocity in +Yaxis and the photon completes the lower half of the wave.
The WaveParticle Duality is only possible if, and only if, a spinning photon has a mass located offcenter in the photon and proves the presence of a mass located offcenter in a photon.
If a photon has either the zero mass or uniformly distributed mass, the WaveParticle Duality and other quantum phenomena are not possible.
The following equations calculate the exact location of a photon in a wave cycle:
A photon of frequency “f” spins from the phase angle θ to θ + dθ, the time and the average velocity are as under:
 The time required by a photon to spin dθ degree: dθ/(360f)
 The average horizontal velocity in dθ spin: [ c + π r f { sin θ + sin ( θ + d θ ) } ]
 The horizontal distance covered in dθ spin:
[ c + π r f { sin θ + sin ( θ + d θ ) } ] d θ / ( 360 f ) (6)
 The average vertical velocity:
π r f { cos θ + cos ( θ + d θ ) }
 The vertical distance covered in dθ spin:
π r f { cos θ + cos ( θ + d θ ) } d θ / ( 360 f ) (7)
The integration, of the equation nos. (6) & (7) from the phase angle θ_{1} to θ_{2} calculates the location of the photon in a quadrant. The integration of the equation no. (7) from 0˚ to 90˚, calculates the amplitude of the wave formed by a photon. The above equations need calculations for each quadrant separately since the same values of sinθ, and cosθ between 0˚ to 360˚ phase angle repeat at different phase angles.
For the photon of known amplitude of the wave, the equation no. (7) calculates the value of “r” for the photon.
The following is the science of “The Formation of an Electromagnetic Wave by a photon”:
 A moving point charge generates both the electric field as well as the magnetic field.
 As the velocity of the charge increases, the intensities of both the electric and the magnetic fields increase and vice versa. If the charge moves in the reverse direction, the directions of both the electric and magnetic fields generated are also in the reverse directions.
 During the 1^{st} half cycle of the spin of the photon from 0˚ to 180˚ phase angle, the charge, in the nucleus located offcenter in the photon, moves in the forward direction in comparison to the center of the photon.
 The velocity of the charge in the nucleus in the forward direction increases from 0˚ to 90˚ spin and decreases from 90˚ to 180˚ spin of the photon or the phase angle. Therefore, the intensities of both the electric and the magnetic fields increase from 0˚ to 90˚ and decrease from 90˚ to 180˚ spin of the photon or the phase angles.
 During the 2^{nd} half cycle of the spin of the photon from 180˚ to 360˚ phase angle, the charge, in the nucleus located offcenter in the photon, moves in the backward direction in comparison to the center of the photon.
 As the charge moves in the backward direction during 180˚ to 360˚ spin, now both the electric and the magnetic fields are generated in the reverse/opposite direction.
 The velocity of the charge in the nucleus (in the reverse direction) increases from 180˚ to 270˚ spin and decreases from 270˚ to 360˚ spin of the photon or the phase angle. Therefore, the intensities of both the electric and the magnetic fields increase from 180˚ to 270˚ and decrease from 270˚ to 360˚ spin of the photon or the phase angle, but in the opposite directions.
 After completing one cycle of the electromagnetic wave formation in 360˚ spin of the photon, the new cycle of the electromagnetic wave starts again from 0˚ phase angle.
The charge in the nucleus accelerates/decelerates to produce the electric field wave in a twodimensional plane and the magnetic field wave in threedimensional plane.
The formation of an Electromagnetic Wave by a photon discovers and proves the presence of a charge in the nucleus located offcenter in the photon.
The phenomenon of refraction changes the direction and the velocity of a photon in the new medium. The secret of the refraction phenomenon are the interactions between the electromagnetic fields of both the photon as well as the new
medium. A linearly polarised photon explains the phenomenon of refraction as under:
 As a rule, a photon spins in the plane of the rotation of the nucleus around the center of the photon. The mass in the nucleus of a linearly polarised photon generates the forces in the XY plane only and the photon travels in Xaxis. The charge in the nucleus generates the electric field in the XY plane on both up & down sides of the line of travel of the photon. The magnetic field generates in all the three directions on both the sides of the line of travel in the plane perpendicular to XY plane of the electric field.
 When a polarised photon travels in the vacuum in the absence of any external electromagnetic field, the charge in the photon generates the uniform electric field and the uniform magnetic field on both the sides of the line of travel of photon.
 A medium consists of atoms bonded together as the molecules. The molecular bonds of the medium generate their distinct electromagnetic fields.
 As the photon enters from the vacuum to the new medium, it experiences a new environment of the external electromagnetic field. Both the electromagnetic fields of the photon and the medium interact.
 A photon is an independent moving identity whereas a medium, in comparison to the photon, is a solid or liquid with a rigid structure and molecular bonds with the electromagnetic field.
 The external electromagnetic field forces the photon to tilt its plane of spin to adjusts to the new external electromagnetic field. The tilt of the photon changes the directions of its electric and the magnetic fields and finds the path of the least electromagnetic resistance to travel in the medium.
 With the tilt of the plane of spin of the photon, the nucleus of the mass and the charge rotates around the center of the photon in a new plane. The mass in the nucleus now generates the forces in the new plane and the photon now travels in a new direction matching with the plane of spin of the photon. Therefore, the direction of the travel of photon changes in the new medium.

 As the photon travels out from the medium and its electromagnetic field, the photon is now out of the external magnetic field. Therefore, the photon tilts back to its regular plane of spin and direction, and all the above changes revert to the normal status.
As the photon enters a new medium and its electromagnetic field, the plane of the spin of photon tilts resulting in the following changes in the photon:
1) The photon travels in a new direction matching with the new plane of the spin of the photon as the forces developed by the mass in the nucleus are in the new directions.
2) The photon forms a wave in a new twodimensional plane.
3) A medium always contracts the electric field of the photon in comparison to the vacuum. The reduction in the size of the electric field wave now formed by the photon reduces the wavelength of the photon in the medium. Therefore, the velocity of the photon reduces in the new medium.
The phenomenon of Refraction discovers and proves the presence of a nucleus of the mass and the charge in a photon.
When a photon reflects on a mirror, the rotating mass in the nucleus of the photon generates an inertial torque at the contact point of the mirror. This inertial torque deviates the photon very slightly in all the three axes. The new equation of reflection for a photon is as under:
i = i + d
where “i” is the angle of incidence and “d” is the angle of deviation of the photon in an axis.
This little deviation of the photons depends on the angle of incidence and the angle of polarisation of the photons. Generally, this deviation is tiny and below the noticeable limit. However, this little deviation on the reflection can be multiplied by the followings:
a) By the second reflection of the deviated photons from a circular surface coated mirror.
b) By reflecting a long chain of the photons.
By repeating the constructive interference again and again, a long chain of the photon forms. When only the 1^{st} photon at the beginning of the chain contacts and reflects on a mirror, the torque of all the spinning photons transfers to the contact point of the 1^{st} photon with the mirror. Therefore, the angle of the deviation of the whole chain of the photons multiplies in all the three axes. Figures 8(a)(c) shows the horizontal, inclined and the vertical chains of the photons for the reflection at the mirror.
The most critical feature of any reflection experiment is the increase in the angle of deviation with the increase in the frequency of the photons under the same conditions. If the photons have zero mass, no inertial torque develops, and on reflection there is no deviation of the photons.
The deviation of the photons on reflection and the increase in the angle of deviation with the higher frequency photons prove the presence of a mass located offcenter in the photons.
The following experiments prove and determine the mass, diameter & charge of the photons:
 A set of a single and a double slit creates constructive interference of the two photons and join them side by side. A typical frame mounts several sets of such single & double slits in the series in perfect alignment with the facility to rotate all the slits together in 360˚ angles.
 Every set of the slits doubles the number of the photons joined together side by side from 2 to 4, 4 to 8, 8 to 16, 16 to 32 and so on by the constructive interference.
 When the same frequency photons join side by side, the strong force due to the mass in the photons is applied, and the photons join to produce a long chain of the photons spinning together.
 All the slits in the same vertical plane produce a horizontal chain of the spinning photons. The chain of the spinning photons forms in a line perpendicular to the plane of all the slits.
 As all the slits rotate, the angle of the chain of the spinning photons changes. With all the slits in the horizontal plane, the chain of photon forms in a vertical line.
 A vertical plain surface coated mirror, in an inclined position, reflects the long chain of the spinning photons. A detector, installed at a distance, detects and records the position of the reflected chain of the photons and the changes in the angles of deviation in different directions.
 The above set up determines the mass, the charge and the diameter of the photons of different frequencies.
 An inertial torque develops on reflection of a chain of the spinning photons by the rotating mass in each photon of the chain.
 All the photons transfer the torques generated to the first photon. The first photon at the contact point of the mirror turns, due to all the inertial torques from all the photons, to deviate on reflection in the different directions.
 After the reflection, the angle of the whole chain of the spinning photons also changes in the different directions.
 The angles of the deviation depend on the angle of the chain of the spinning photons at the contact point of the mirror.
The following equations can calculate the mass of the photon:
 The angle of deviation in Xdirection:
Φ X : k m f [ ( r sin θ ) 2 + { ( D + r ) sin θ } 2 + { ( 2 D + r ) sin θ } 2 + ⋯ + { ( n D − D + r ) sin θ } 2 ] (8)
 The angle of deviation in Ydirection:
Φ Y : k m f [ ( r cos θ ) 2 + { ( D + r ) cos θ } 2 + { ( 2 D + r ) cos θ } 2 + ⋯ + { ( n D − D + r ) cos θ } 2 ] (9)
where:
 k: a constant
 θ: Polarisation angle of the photons
 D: Diameter of the photon
 n: Number of photons in the chain
A set of data generates by varying the angle of the chain of the spinning photons and the angle of incidence on the mirror to calculate the mass of the photon.
 The multiple slits produce a long chain of the photons joined together side by side in any required number by the constructive interference.
 All the photons are in the same phase in the chain of the spinning photons. As all the photons are close enough, the magnetic fields of all the photons combine to form a single peak of the strong magnetic field.
 A magnetic field detector detects and records the combined magnetic field.
 The division of the combined magnetic field by the number of the photons calculates the strength of the magnetic field of a single photon which in turn calculates the charge of the photon using already known equations.
 All the multiple slits in the horizontal plane form a long vertical chain of the spinning photons.
 A detector can detect both the ends of the chain of the photon after reflection or directly without reflection. The distance between the first and the last photon divided by the number of the photons calculates the diameter of the photon.
Note: The instruments with the required high precision are not available in the private laboratory of the author.
The essence of a photon/quantum particle is the presence of a nucleus of the mass and the charge, and the most critical feature is the offcenter location of the nucleus in the particle. The intermediate interference decisively discovers and proves the presence of only one nucleus of the mass located offcenter in the photons.
The nucleus of the mass and charge rotates around the center of the photon with the spin of the photon and continuously accelerates/decelerates in the different directions, and these accelerations of the mass in the nucleus generate the forces of varying magnitudes in the different directions. The continuously varying forces in the different directions move a photon as a wave and explain the WaveParticle Duality pending since the year 1801. Similarly, the regular accelerations/decelerations of the charge in the nucleus explain the formation of an electromagnetic wave by a photon/quantum particle.
During reflection of a photon, the rotating mass in the photon creates inertial torque at the contact point of the mirror in different directions. These inertial forces deviate the photon a little in different directions after the reflection. The increase in the frequency of the photons increases the angles of deviation in the different directions. Higher the frequency, the higher is the inertial torque developed by the mass of the photons. The generation of the inertial torque, at the contact point of the mirror, proves the presence of a mass located offcenter in the photons.
All the quantum phenomena prove the presence of a nucleus of the mass and the charge located offcenter in the photons/quantum particles as stated in the New Quantum Theory. The experiments using high precision instruments can determine the mass, the charge and the diameter of the photons.
The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.
Agarwal, N.S. (2018) Discovery & Proofs of a Nucleus of Mass and Charge in the Photons/Quantum Particles. Journal of Modern Physics, 9, 21702192. https://doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2018.912137