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The Kaohsiung light rail transit (LRT) system first introduced embedded rail system in Taiwan. However, domestic engineering consultants are still lacking in experience of analysis, design and construction of embedded rail systems. Noise and vibration of the mass rapid transit system is an important environmental issue in an urban environment. In order to understand the environmental impact of noise due to structural vibrations caused by a train running on the rail system, this paper establishes a numerical analysis procedure to perform a simulation. There are two fundamental parts to the numerical simulation: 1) vibration response due to a moving load and 2) radiation propagation of noise induced by structural vibration. The Kaohsiung LRT is used as a case study. The real embedded rail track system is modeled using ANSYS software with finite element analysis and the dynamic time history of the vibration response of the rail caused by a moving load is obtained. Secondly, the dynamic vibration response of the rail outputted by ANSYS is then imported into the software LMS Virtual.Lab to obtain the external radiation and sound field pressure distribution transferred from the rail to a specific monitoring point, based on the boundary element method. This paper also conducts field measurements of vibration velocity and sound pressure as a train passes. Both the experimental and analytical results for noise at specific points are compared and discussed. The proposed procedure promises to be suitable for practical vibration and noise analyses for rail systems.

Around the world, because maintenance work on various ballast track systems has increased year by year, the maintenance cost, including labor and equipment costs, has also increased. Meanwhile, the ballast tracks required for the sleeper, ballasts and other materials are becomingly increasingly scarce. Therefore, research and development on railway systems around the world have trended towards non-ballast track system [

In this paper, the three-dimensional finite element analysis is used to study the vibration and noise characteristics of embedded rail systems. Taking the Kaohsiung LRT as an example, vibration, and noise analyses of embedded rail systems are performed. The purpose of the study is to establish a set of effective simulation procedures and methodologies, and effectively apply them to practical engineering problems.

There are two stages in the vibration and noise analyses of rail systems. The first stage uses ANSYS to determine the dynamic response by moving a load on the rail system via the finite element method [

The embedded rail system consists of three elements: the steel rail, the encapsulation, and the concrete slab. The Kaohsiung LRT main line use a 54R2 (41GPU) track for the steel rail section, the encapsulation uses recycled waste tires, and the concrete track bed is a no-fasteners continuous support type [

The finite element model of the embedded rail system is established with ANSYS. The soil depth is 4 meters, the width is 10 meters, and the overall length of the track is 40 meters, as shown in

The vehicle model is simplified as a double-row concentrated moving load. All concentrated loads are assumed to be 65 kN for train load analysis according

Material | Elastic modulus (MPa) | Density (kg/m^{3}) | Damping ratio (%) |
---|---|---|---|

Steel rail | 200,000 | 7850 | 2 |

Concrete slab | 30,000 | 2400 | 3 |

Encapsulation | 2.6 | 1200 | 5 |

AC concrete | 3 | 2360 | 3 |

Pavement concrete | 17,405 | 2400 | 3 |

Fertile soil | 15 | 1600 | 5 |

Soil | 40 | 1800 | 5 |

to the original design. The boundary conditions are assumed to be at the soil boundary. Both the left and right sides of the model (X direction) and the bottom of the model (Y direction) are fixed. The deformation on both sides of the driving direction (Z direction) is assumed to be zero, which is considered to be the plane strain condition. The numerical model is modeled by solid elements in order to reduce analysis time, using the modal superposition method to solve the equations of motion.

The sound field analysis uses LMS Virtual. Lab’s built-in transient boundary element with an air density of 1.255 kg/m^{3} and a sound velocity of 340 m/s. The node instantaneous displacement vibration response obtained from the ANSYS analysis is taken as the boundary condition of the sound field. All node displacements are applied to the nodes mapped by the sound field and the acoustic radiation is calculated. In order to understand the sound field response of a train passing through, the sound field is calculated at a point 1.2 m from the top of the rail, as shown in

In this study, two different types of embedded rail systems were selected. The general embedded track measurement points were located at the intersection of Kaisyuan 4th Road and Zhongshan 3rd Road. The upper part of the measurement location was the viaduct. The grass-embedded track measurement points were located near the intersection of Kaisyuan 4th Road and Ruinan Street. The two measuring points were close to the Kaohsiung mass rapid transit (MRT) system’s Kaisyuan station, which is the MRT red line R6 station.

The vibration measurement was carried out using the SPC-51 portable vibration monitoring system and the VSE-15D servo velocity-meter produced by Tokyo Sokushin Co., Ltd. The vibration was measured with measurement duration of 180 seconds for each recording and a sampling rate of 200 Hz. The gen eral embedded track measurement points were set at 1.28 m, 4.28 m, 6.98 m, 10.33 m, and 13.33 m from the rail center. Three single-axis servo velocity-meters (VSE-15D) were set at the same location to measure the X, Y, Z directions of the vibration speed. The X, Y, and Z directions are expressed as the perpendicular, parallel, and vertical driving directions to the ground, respectively. The measurement setup for the general embedded track is shown in

The noise measurement was performed using a low-profile surface pressure microphone (130A40, PCB Piezotronics, Inc., USA) and with an adaptable modular measurement system for physical signals (CRONOS PL-2, imc Meßsysteme GmbH, Germany). We referenced the selection of measurement points to the standard for noise control on land transport systems from Environmental Protection Administration [

The measurement and numerical simulation results for low-frequency noise of

the general embedded track are shown in

This section considers the train speed, soil material, and encapsulation material

as the three basic parameters. The finite element model and numerical analysis procedure established in this paper are used in the parametric study in order to understand the sensitivity of each parameter to vibration and noise.

mum sound pressure level and maximum displacement are not sensitive to the elastic modulus of encapsulation.

1) The comparison of the simulation and measurement results for the embedded rail system showed that: a) the finite element model could effectively determine the natural frequency of the embedded rail system and the correctness of the model and b) considering low-frequency noise only, the numerical simulation could effectively reflect the main frequency of low-frequency noise.

2) The parametric study on vibration and noise showed that: a) when the train speed increases, the maximum sound pressure level also increases, but the maximum displacement decreases; b) when the soil elastic modulus increases, the maximum sound pressure level also increases, but the maximum displacement decreases; and c) the maximum sound pressure level and maximum displacement are not sensitive to the elastic modulus of the encapsulation.

3) The vibration and noise frequency response from simulation and measurement results can be applied to dynamic performance design, vibration, and noise reduction for embedded rail systems.

This study was sponsored by CECI Engineering Consultants, Inc., Taiwan under project number CECI 105-05931.

Yeh, F.Y., Chang, X.T. and Sung, Y.C. (2017) Numerical and Experimental Study on Vibration and Noise of Embedded Rail System. Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, 5, 1629-1637. https://doi.org/10.4236/jamp.2017.59135