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In this paper, a Variational homotopy perturbation method is proposed to solve nonlinear Riccati differential equation. By combining the Variational Iteration Method and the Homotopy Perturbation Method, this technique possesses a fast convergence rate with high accuracy. The results reveal that the proposed method is very effective and simple.

The Riccati equation plays a great role in blueprint and analysis the linear and nonlinear optimal control problems. Numerical Solution of this equation has been acquired by applying Adomian’s decomposition method [

The application of HPM on nonlinear problems has been implemented by scientists and engineers, because this method is to continuously deform a difficult problem under study into a simple problem easy to solve. VIM proved by Ji- Huan He [

The nonlinear Riccati differential equation [

L ( x ) = A ( x ) u 2 ( x ) + B ( x ) u ( x ) + C ( x ) , 0 ≤ x ≤ X u ( 0 ) = α (1)

where L = d d x or d 2 d x 2 , A ( x ) , B ( x ) and C ( x ) are continuous functions

and α is an arbitrary constant.

We organize the following paper as follows. In Section 2, we present the VIM, while in Section 3, we present the HPM. In Section 4, we apply the VHPM to solve quadratic Riccati equation. Moreover, we find solutions of some examples by VHPM in Section 5.

The results reveal that the proposed method is very effective and simple. We end this paper by conclusion that reveal that these methods are very effective and convenient for solving nonlinear Riccati equations.

To illustrate the basic concepts of the VIM we consider the following differential equation [

L ( u ) + N ( u ) = f ( x ) (2)

where L is a linear operator, N is a nonlinear operator, and f ( x ) is an inhomogeneous term. Then, we can construct the correct functional as follows

u n + 1 = u n + ∫ 0 x λ ( ξ ) [ L ( u n ) + N ( u ˜ n ) − f ( ξ ) ] d ξ (3)

where λ is a general Lagrangian multiplier defined as [

λ ( x , t ) = ( − 1 ) m ( m − 1 ) ! ( x − t ) m − 1 , m ≥ 1 (4)

And u ˜ n are restricted variation which means δ u ˜ n = 0 . Consequently, the solution u = lim n → ∞ u n .

To explain this method, we construct the following function [

A ( u ) − f ( x ) = 0 , x ∈ Ω (5)

With boundary condition

B ( u , ∂ u / ∂ n ) = 0 , x ∈ Γ (6)

where A is a general differential operator, B is a boundary operator, f ( x ) is a known analytical function. The operator A can be decomposed into two operators L and N , where L is a linear operator and N is a nonlinear operator.

By using the homotopy technique, we construct a homotopy u ( x , p ) : Ω × [ 0 , 1 ] → ℝ which are satisfies

H ( u , p ) = ( 1 − p ) [ L ( u ) − L ( u 0 ) ] + p [ L ( u ) + N ( u ) − f ( x ) ] = 0 (7)

or

H ( u , p ) = L ( u ) − L ( u 0 ) + p [ L ( u 0 ) + N ( u ) − f ( x ) ] = 0 (8)

where p ∈ [ 0 , 1 ] is an embedding parameter. u 0 is an initial approximation of solution of equation.

L ( u ) + N ( u ) − f ( x ) = 0 (9)

We have

H ( u , 0 ) = L ( u ) + L ( u 0 ) = 0 , H ( u , 1 ) = A ( u ) − f = 0 (10)

The solution can be written as a power series in p , u ( x ) = lim p → 1 u = u 0 + p u 1 + p 2 u 2 + ⋯ .

In this section, we apply the VHPM to Riccati Equation (1), we start this method by applying HPM in Equation (8) on Equation (1), we get

L u n ( x ) − L u 0 ( x ) + p [ L u 0 ( x ) − A ( x ) u n 2 − B ( x ) u n − C ( x ) ] = 0 (11)

Now we using correction functional in Equation (5) to get

u n + 1 = u n + ∫ 0 x λ ( ξ ) [ L u n − L u 0 + p ( L u 0 − A ( ξ ) u n 2 − B ( ξ ) u n − C ( ξ ) ) ] d ξ (12)

We can obtain

u n + 1 = u 0 + p ∫ 0 x λ ( ξ ) [ L u 0 − A ( ξ ) u n 2 − B ( ξ ) u n − C ( ξ ) ] d ξ (13)

Now we can rewrite Equation (13) in the form

∑ n = 0 ∞ p n u n = u 0 + p ∫ 0 x [ λ ( ξ ) ( L u 0 − N ∑ n = 0 ∞ p n u ˜ n − C ( ξ ) ) ] d ξ (14)

As we see, the procedure is formulated by the coupling of VIM and HPM [

Consider the following classical Riccati differential equation

u ′ ( x ) = − u 2 + 2 u + 1 (15)

With initial condition u ( 0 ) = 0 .

For the above differential equation, the exact solution [

u ( x ) = 1 + 2 tanh ( 2 x + 1 2 log ( 2 − 1 2 + 1 ) ) (16)

The Taylor expansion of u ( x ) about x = 0 gives

u ( x ) = x + x 2 + 1 3 x 3 − 1 3 x 4 − 7 15 x 5 − 7 45 x 6 + 53 315 x 7 + ⋯ (17)

Suppose that the initial approximation is u 0 = x .

To solve Equation (15), by the VHPM we substitution it in Equation (14)

∑ n = 0 ∞ p n u n = u 0 − p ∫ 0 x [ − 2 ∑ n = 0 ∞ p n u n + ( ∑ n = 0 ∞ p n u n ) 2 ] d ξ (18)

Here λ = − 1 .

By comparing the coefficient of like powers of p , we have

p ( 0 ) : u 0 = x p ( 1 ) : u 1 = − ∫ 0 x ( − 2 u 0 + u 0 2 ) d ξ = x 2 − 1 3 x 3 p ( 2 ) : u 2 = − ∫ 0 x ( − 2 u 1 + 2 u 0 u 1 ) d ξ = 2 3 x 3 − 2 3 x 4 + 2 15 x 5 p ( 3 ) : u 3 = − ∫ 0 x ( − 2 u 2 + 2 u 0 u 2 + u 1 2 ) d ξ = 1 3 x 4 − 11 15 x 5 + 17 45 x 6 − 17 315 x 7 ⋮ (19)

The other components of the VHPM can be determined in similar way. Finally, the approximate solution of Equation (15) is u = u 0 + u 1 + u 2 + u 3 + ⋯ . Which converge to the exact solution in Equation (16).

Consider the following quadratic Riccati differential equation

u ′ ( x ) = − 2 e x u 2 + 2 e 2 x u + e x − e 3 x (20)

With initial condition u ( 0 ) = 1 .

For the above differential equation, the exact solution [

u ( x ) = e x (21)

The Taylor expansion of u ( x ) about x = 0 gives

u ( x ) = 1 + x + 1 2 x 2 + 1 6 x 3 + 1 24 x 4 + 1 120 x 5 + 1 720 x 6 + 1 5040 x 7 + ⋯ (22)

Suppose that the initial approximation is u 0 = x + 1 .

To solve Equation (20), by the VHPM we substitution it in Equation (14), then we get

∑ n = 0 ∞ p n u n = u 0 − p ∫ 0 x [ 1 + ∑ n = 0 ∞ ( 2 ξ ) n n ! ( ∑ n = 0 ∞ p n u n ) − 2 ∑ n = 0 ∞ ( 2 ξ ) n n ! ( ∑ n = 0 ∞ p n u n ) 2 + ∑ n = 0 ∞ ( 3 ξ ) n n ! − ∑ n = 0 ∞ ξ n n ! ] d ξ (23)

Here λ = − 1 .

By comparing the coefficient of like powers of p , we have

p ( 0 ) : u 0 = x + 1 p ( 1 ) : u 1 = 1 2 x 2 + 1 6 x 3 + 1 24 x 4 − 1 24 x 5 − 49 270 x 6 − 37 270 x 7 − 1091 40320 x 8 + 247 45360 x 9 − 1 50400 x 10 p ( 2 ) : u 2 = 1 10 x 5 + 5 36 x 6 + 13 126 x 7 + 23 480 x 8 + 19 2592 x 9 − 3389 302400 x 10 − ⋯ p ( 3 ) : u 3 = − 1 20 x 5 − 5 72 x 6 − 13 252 x 7 − 1 120 x 8 + 59 1728 x 9 + 32119 604800 x 10 + ⋯ ⋮ (24)

The other components of the VHPM can be determined in similar way. Finally, the approximate solution of Equation (20) is u = u 0 + u 1 + u 2 + u 3 + ⋯ . Which converge to the exact solution in Equation (21).

Consider the Riccati Type Painleve’s First Transcendent equation [

u ″ ( x ) = 6 u 2 + μ x , μ = 1 (25)

With initial conditions u ( 0 ) = 1 , u ′ ( 0 ) = 0 .

The above differential equation without known exactly solutions and we suppose that the initial approximation is u 0 = 1 + x 2 .

To solve Equation (25) by the VHPM, substitution it in Equation (14), then we get

∑ n = 0 ∞ p n u n = u 0 + p ∫ 0 x λ ( ξ ) [ 2 − 6 ( ∑ n = 0 ∞ p n u n ) 2 − ξ ] d ξ (26)

In this example λ = ( ξ − x ) .

By comparing the coefficient of like powers of p , we have

p ( 0 ) : u 0 = 1 + x 2 p ( 1 ) : u 1 = 2 x 2 + 1 6 x 3 + x 4 + 1 5 x 6 p ( 2 ) : u 2 = 2 x 4 + 1 10 x 5 + 6 5 x 6 + 1 21 x 7 + 9 35 x 8 + 2 75 x 10 p ( 3 ) : u 3 = 8 5 x 6 + 13 105 x 7 + 1877 1680 x 8 + 11 210 x 9 + 11 35 x 10 + 17 1925 x 11 + 254 5775 x 12 + x 14 325 ⋮ (27)

The other components of the VHPM can be determined in similar way. Finally, the approximate solution of Equation (25) is u ≈ u 0 + u 1 + u 2 + u 3 + ⋯ . In

Consider the Riccati Type Painleve’s Second Transcendent equation [

u ″ ( x ) = 2 u 3 + x u + μ , μ = 1 (28)

With initial conditions u ( 0 ) = 1 , u ′ ( 0 ) = 0 .

The above differential equation without known exactly solutions and we suppose that the initial approximation is u 0 = 1 + x 2 .

To solve Equation (28) by the VHPM, substitution it in Equation (14), then we get

∑ n = 0 ∞ p n u n = u 0 + p ∫ 0 x λ ( ξ ) [ 1 − 2 ( ∑ n = 0 ∞ p n u n ) 3 − ξ ∑ n = 0 ∞ p n u n ] d ξ (29)

x | VHPM | TTS | RA |
---|---|---|---|

0.0 | 1.000000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 |

0.1 | 1.030471 | 1.030471 | 1.0305 |

0.2 | 1.126366 | 1.126366 | 1.1264 |

0.3 | 1.301454 | 1.301453 | 1.3015 |

0.4 | 1.583055 | 1.583054 | 1.5831 |

0.5 | 2.022763 | 2.022771 | 2.0228 |

0.6 | 2.721246 | 2.721242 | 2.7212 |

0.7 | 3.890893 | 3.890886 | 3.8909 |

0.8 | 6.038351 | 6.038340 | 6.0383 |

0.9 | 10.622497 | 10.622610 | 10.6223 |

1.0 | 23.363804 | 23.393600 | 23.3860 |

And we have λ = ( ξ − x ) .

By comparing the coefficient of like powers of p , we have

p ( 0 ) : u 0 = 1 + x 2 p ( 1 ) : u 1 = 1 2 x 2 + 1 6 x 3 + 1 2 x 4 + 1 20 x 5 + 1 5 x 6 + 1 28 x 8 p ( 2 ) : u 2 = 1 4 x 4 + 3 40 x 5 + 11 36 x 6 + 1 51 x 7 + 41 224 x 8 + 1 224 x 9 + 131 2100 x 10 + 47 15400 x 11 + 19 1540 x 12 + 3 2548 x 14 p ( 3 ) : u 3 = 1 10 x 6 + 17 420 x 7 + 383 2240 x 8 + 703 12960 x 9 + 6887 50400 x 10 + 4013 123200 x 11 + 1039 15840 x 12 + 2759 257400 x 13 + 117269 5605600 x 14 + 151 77000 x 15 + 74933 16816800 x 16 + 28671 190590400 x 17 + 5653 9529520 x 18 + 15 387296 x 20 ⋮ (30)

The other components of the VHPM can be determined in similar way. Finally, the approximate solution of Equation (28) is u ≈ u 0 + u 1 + u 2 + u 3 + ⋯ . In

In this paper, we studied the solution of nonlinear Riccati differential equation. We have applied a recently introduced technique called the VHPM to solve this nonlinear differential equation. This method is more efficient and simpler. The results of the method exhibit excellent agreement with the exact solution. The

x | VHPM | TTS | RA |
---|---|---|---|

0.0 | 1.000000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 |

0.1 | 1.015244 | 1.01520 | 1.0152 |

0.2 | 1.062614 | 1.06260 | 1.0626 |

0.3 | 1.146376 | 1.14640 | 1.1464 |

0.4 | 1.274152 | 1.27420 | 1.2742 |

0.5 | 1.459213 | 1.45920 | 1.4592 |

0.6 | 1.725376 | 1.72540 | 1.7254 |

0.7 | 2.118444 | 2.11840 | 2.1184 |

0.8 | 2.736936 | 2.73690 | 2.7369 |

0.9 | 3.834399 | 3.83440 | 3.8343 |

1.0 | 6.309968 | 6.31100 | 6.3104 |

comparison between the numerical results with TTS and RA in Problems 3 and 4 of validates the accuracy of the VHPM method for problems without known exactly solutions that have been advanced for solving Riccati equation shows that the new technique is reliable and powerful.

Kashkari, B.S. and Saleh, S. (2017) Variational Homotopy Per- turbation Method for Solving Riccati Type Differential Problems. Applied Mathema- tics, 8, 893-900. https://doi.org/10.4236/am.2017.87070