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In this paper, an ultra-low power adder cell is proposed. With cascading two XNOR cells, the sum of two inputs is achieved. Regarding to advantages of m-GDI XNOR cell, we constructed the adder cell based on this architecture. The simulation results show that the power consumption of the adder cell designed with GDI technology is 12.993 μw, whereas for this cell designed with m-GDI technology is 4.1628 μw, which both are designed at 0.18 um technology. Moreover, simulation results in 90 nm CMOS technology for m-GDI adder cell show average power consumption of 0.90262 μw and 6.3222 μw in 200 MHz and 2GHz, respectively.

The adders are the most common arithmetic circuits in digital systems as key components of multipliers and dividers that are used to do subtraction. There are several types of adders with different configurations, speeds and areas that we can select an appropriate one which satisfies our requirements. When information transferring is serial to reduce wiring, the serial adders are generally used [

The design of a 4-bit serial adder in 90 nm technology and supply voltage of 1.2 V is the goal of this paper. At first, the most important step of designing is choosing an adder cell which meets our requirements. Ideally, we have to use a full adder with minimum transistors in order to consume little power and occupy minimum space on the die. During the last years in the worldwide market, the increase in the demand of complex mobile systems led the designers to take into account a novel objective in the design of complex digital circuits including the minimization of power consumption. One of the most important reasons that fuel the need for an ultra-low power design is the high diffusion of systems such as laptop, cellular phones, wireless modems and portable multimedia applications. Also, the need for minimization of power dissipation of a system is enforced by some thermal considerations like a large percentage of the energy demanded by a device from the power supply which is converted into heat. In this way, the heat dissipation system and cooling mechanisms become indispensable for the correct, reliable and safe operation of the device. An increase of 10˚C in the working temperature of an electronic device causes a 100% increase in its failure rate. Therefore, it is possible to reduce the associated costs for expensive cooling and complex packaging needs if it is possible to decrease the heat dissipation.

The registers are other undividable parts of serial adders that consist of the latches. The cascading D Flip- flops is the simplest way to build the registers. We can achieve this register by cascading 4 D Flip-Flops since our design goal is a 4-bit adder. Choosing of proper D Flip-Flops is of our interests that beside high reliability, meet our requirements of lower power consumption and high speed. Finally, post-layout simulation will be accomplished to bring parasitic capacitances existing in the die to account. The paper is organized as follows: Section 2 briefly describes the serial adder, Section 3 provides the details of the proposed ultra-low power full adders, and Section 4 presents the results and discussions. Finally, in Section 5, we conclude.

A serial adder operates similarly to manual addition. The serial adder, at each step, calculates the sum and carries at one bit position. It starts at the least significant bit position and each successive next step it sequentially moves to the next more significant bit position where it calculates the sum and carry. At the n-th step, it calculates the sum and carries at the most significant bit position. In other words, the serial adder serially adds augend X and addend Y by adding xi, yi, and c_{i }at the i-th bit position from i = 0 to n − 1. We have sum bit

where “・” is AND, “˅” is OR, and “Å” is XOR, and henceforth, “・” will be omitted. This serial addition can be realized by the logic network, called a serial adder, or bit-serial adder. The addition of each i-th bit is done at a rate of one bit per cycle of clock, producing sum bits, si’s, at the same rate, from the least significant bit to the most significant one. In each cycle, s_{i} and c_{i}_{+1}, are calculated from x_{i}, y_{i}, and the carry from the previous cycle, c_{i}. The core logic network, shown in the rectangle in

The 1-Bit full adder design is one of the most critical components of a processor that determines its throughput, as it is used in ALU, the floating point unit, and address generation in case of cache or memory accesses. The logic symbol and truth table for a full adder circuit are shown in

We obtain the logic network for a FA shown in

As shown in

The 10-T full adder consists of four modules, including one 3-T XOR gate, one 3-T XNOR gate, and two 2-T multiplexers (2-T MUX) as shown in

The transistor level implementation of GDI XOR full adder is shown in

With cascading two XNOR cells we can achieve the sum of two inputs, regarding to advantages of m-GDI XNOR cell, we constructed the adder cell based on this architecture. The output carry can be resulted of a GDI cell shown in

The input/output waveforms of GDI XNOR and m-GDI XNOR cells in 180 nm technology and supply voltage 0f 1.8 v are illustrated in

The power consumption of the adder cell designed with GDI technology is 12.993 µw, whereas for this cell designed with m-GDI technology is 4.1628 µw (both are designed at 0.18 um technology and shown inputs). HSPICE simulations of two structures are illustrated and compared in

The input/output waveform of a m-GDI adder cell, with restoration PMOS, in 90 nm technology is shown in

XNOR cell | Average power (µw) | Rise time (ps) | Fall time (ps) |
---|---|---|---|

m-GDI | 1.2796 | 50 | 148 |

GDI | 3.9206 | 74 | 213 |

Frequency | Average vdd power consumption (µw) | Average inputa power consumption (µw) | Average inputb power consumption (µw) | Average cin power consumption (µw) | Rise time (ps) | Fall time (ps) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

200 MHz | 0.90262 | 0.30007 | 0.17399 | 0.11401 | 57 | 75 |

2 GHz | 6.3222 | 0.31976 | 0.19282 | 0.13620 | 94 | 123 |

An ultra-low power adder cell is proposed with cascading two XNOR cells. In this way, we can achieve the sum of two inputs, regarding to advantages of m-GDI XNOR cell. The simulation results show that the power consumption of the adder cell designed with GDI technology is 12.993 µw, whereas for this cell designed with m-GDI technology is 4.1628 µw at 0.18 µm technology. Also, simulation results show average power consumption of 0.90262 µw and 6.3222 µw in 200 MHz and 2 GHz, respectively for m-GDI adder cell in 90 nm CMOS technology.

This work was supported by the Laser and Optics Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research School, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

MasoudSabaghi,SaeidMarjani,AbbasMajdabadi, (2016) The Design of Ultra-Low Power Adder Cell in 90 and 180 nm CMOS Technology. Circuits and Systems,07,58-67. doi: 10.4236/cs.2016.72007