_{1}

^{*}

Gauss’s law is modified to take into account the absorption of the electric field by vacuum. It has important consequences as the absorbed energy becomes a part of the vacuum energy and excites the energy of strings in a form of quantum harmonic oscillators. Thus, vacuum becomes an excitable medium and this helps to understand the basic mechanisms for the conservation of the charge of the electron, electrostatic attraction or repulsion and the energy associated with vacuum.

One of the most fundamental and widely used principles in electricity and magnetism is given by Gauss’s law. It deals with the flow of energy associated with an electrical field E. If there is no charge in the enclosed area in the vacuum, then the incoming electric flux is equal to the outgoing electric flux; and if there is a charge inside the closed surface then the flow is given by [

Here Q is the total charge inside the closed surface in the vacuum and e_{0} is the dielectric constant of vacuum. This sounds well if the absorption of the energy within the vacuum associated with the electric field is not considered.

It is known that the flux of E coming through the closed surface is equal to the outgoing flux. This turns out due to the fact that the relation between the intensity of the electric field, at a distance r from the charge, is proportional to 1/r^{2} and the area of the sphere is proportional to r^{2} and hence the product is independent of r [

It is, therefore, necessary to look at the flow of the electric energy E through the volume of cones of radius R_{1} and R_{2} originated at the point charge Q (_{1}dθR_{1}dФdr and R_{2}dθR_{2}dФdr which enclose the cone needs to be examined. The energy passing through both volumes in a fixed time dt should be equal if there is no absorption of energy in the vacuum. The distance travelled by the energy in time dt is cdt = dr; where c is the velocity of light. Therefore, the same thickness of the shell dr is used in both cases to estimate the flow of energy in a fix time dt.

The energy associated with the electric field per unit volume is given by [

E at any point on the surface is given by

where r is the distance measured from charge Q. Therefore, the energy per unit volume is given by

The energy passing through the volume of the cone (R_{1}dθR_{1}dФdr) located at a distance R_{1} from charge Q with thickness dr is given by

where dθ and dФ are angles subtended by the surface at the point charge Q.

The energy passing out through the volume of the cone located at R_{2}dθR_{2}dФdr is

As R_{2} > R_{1}, (

is more than Equation (8). This indeed confirms that the electric field is absorbed by the vacuum. Therefore Equation (1) needs to be modified

where

The above approach helps to solve the long standing puzzle related with the emission of electric field by the electron (or the charge particle). Let us consider that the electron emits energy in the form of electric field for time t. The electric field is created within a radius of distance ct. After time dt, the electric field is observed within a radius of distance c(t + dt) without altering the intensity of the electric field within a radius ct. This means that an additional energy is created within the volume enclosed in circular layer

The presence of vibrational energy in the vacuum is also confirmed by Casimir effect [

The absorption of the electric field in the vacuum is a direct process and provides information about the nature and the interaction of the electric field. The energy of the self excited vibrational modes associated with the electric field becomes the part of the vibrational energy of the strings which forms the system of the compact liquid as considered earlier [

The electron or the charge particle is emitting energy forever and its mass is constant. This indicates that the charge particle is receiving energy by a feedback mechanism from the vacuum as discussed earlier by Joshi [_{1} and R_{2} in Equations (7) and (8) are very small, the absorption of the electric field is significantly high in a close proximity of the electron. This indicates that the amplitude of the frequency corresponding to the electric field is very high.

The close relationship between high amplitude of the wave originated by wake oscillator and feed back mechanism is given by Van der Pol equation which is generally used in compressed fluids [

where X is the amplitude and D is the damping coefficient. Van der Pol equation [

To explain precisely the mechanism of absorption of electric energy is rather difficult as the nature of the electric field itself is not well understood on the basis of classical electrodynamics. It is clear and experimentally confirmed by several techniques that the field which we are dealing has characteristics of vector. It has magnitude, direction and it follows the laws of vector analysis [

Recently, it has been confirmed that the space is filled with strings in a compact form of liquid [

According to the Quantum Field Theory (Q.F.T.), under specific conditions, the field can be converted into a particle (or vice versa). This is a consequence of the nature of the field which is strongly associated with self excited vibrations of the organized strings. According to Q.F.T. the particle is considered as an excited state of the underlying physical field and hence interacts and is considered as a “Field Quanta” [

Self excited vibrations form a system of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators and carries kinetic, potential and buffer energies. This makes it more versatile and this is confirmed by several experiments. One of the most important accomplishments of the present approach is that it helps to understand the conversion of fields into a particle (or vice versa) which plays a significant role in quantum field theory. Using this approach, Maxwell’s equations and wave propagation have been reexamined successfully and concluded that space becomes an excitable medium with the presence of strings [

Equation (9) shows that vacuum absorbs energy and it is circulated in various forms. A recent investigation reveals that the mechanisms of repulsion or attraction of two electric charges is based on the potential energy of strings in the space [

Gauss law needs to be modified to take into account the absorption of the electric field by strings in a compact form of liquid. The absorbed energy is stored as buffer energy and it is also used for electrostatic attraction and repulsion processes. This also plays a crucial role in wave propagation of energy and the conversion of energy from vacuum to electrical. A direct detection of the presence of strings in the form of a compact liquid is not possible because of their very small dimensions, unknown magnitudes of strain and other properties related with vibrations. Their presence can be confirmed only by indirect and consistent methods. The conclusion of the present work is that vacuum in the form of a compact, incompressible dry liquid of strings absorbs electromagnetic energy and it is used for feedback and storage purposes.

Narahari V. Joshi, (2015) Gauss’s Law: Re-Examination and Its Consequences. Journal of Modern Physics,06,2035-2039. doi: 10.4236/jmp.2015.614209