_{1}

^{*}

In a closed vacuum-dominated universe, the holographic principle implies that only a finite amount of information will ever be available to describe the distribution of matter in the sea of cosmic microwave background radiation. When z = 6 to z = 8, if information describing the distribution of matter in large scale structures is uniformly distributed in structures ranging in mass from that of the largest stars to the Jeans’ mass, a holographic model for large scale structure in a closed universe can account for massive galaxies and central black holes observed at z = 6 to z = 8. In sharp contrast, the usual approach assuming only collapse of primordial overdensities into large scale structures has difficulty producing massive galaxies and central black holes at z = 6 to z = 8.

“Current theory predicts that galaxies begin their existence as tiny density fluctuations, with overdensities collapsing into virialized protogalaxies, and eventually assemble gas and dust into stars and black holes” [

To address the “impossibly early galaxy problem” of Steinhardt et al., this analysis treats our universe as a closed Friedmann universe, dominated by vacuum energy in the form of a cosmological constant, and so large that it is approximately flat. This is consistent with full mission 2015 Planck satellite observations [

In the following,

matter accounts for 30.8% of the energy in today’s universe,

In a closed universe, there is no source or sink for information outside the universe, so the total amount of information available to describe the universe remains constant. Also, after the first few seconds of the life of the universe, energy exchange between matter and radiation is negligible compared to the total energy of matter and radiation separately [

(the mass

information within the event horizon) is

At

When the matter density

waves affecting matter density is

In this holographic model for large scale structure at

uses a maximum stellar mass of

horizon relates to the aggregate of halo masses by

While recognizing the difficulties and intricacies involved in estimating halo masses at large redshift, Steinhardt et al. [

mass between

between

The scale factor

Compared to the cloud of data points in

As in Ref. [_{S} is enclosed by a holo-

graphic screen with radius

where r is the distance from the center of the halo and a is constant. The mass

radius R_{s} in an isothermal density distribution is

If the mass of the central supermassive black hole (SMBH) is at the center of a core volume with radius

Mortlock et al. [^{9} years after the Big Bang, recognize this “evidence contrasts with the standard theory of black hole growth.” In comparison, the average halo mass at z = 6 to z = 8 in this holographic model is

Caltech’s Professor Steinhardt and colleagues [

T. R.Mongan, (2015) Massive Galaxies and Central Black Holes at z = 6 to z = 8. Journal of Modern Physics,06,1987-1990. doi: 10.4236/jmp.2015.614204