_{1}

^{*}

This paper establishes a very important scientific solution to science of complexity for physicists, and presents a multidisciplinary involved physics and engineering. The innovative solution for complex systems presented here is verified on the basis of principles in engineering such as feed-back-system analysis using the classical control theory. This paper proposes that a complex system is a closed-loop system with a negative feedback element and is a solvable problem. A complex system can be analyzed using the system analysis theory in control engineering, and its behavior can be realized using a specially designed simulator.

This paper establishes a very important scientific solution about complexity, which will be of interest to physicists and may be considered a significant innovation in modern sciences. Complex systems have not yet been solved and are considered a difficult subject in different fields of science. Some of the prevalent examples include the black hole, sun magnetic field, nuclear theory, super conductor, plasma, climate change, turbulence, and complex systems. It is the consensus regarding a single universal definition of complex systems does not yet exist, and the key problems of complex systems are the difficulties in formal modeling and simulations.

However, this paper reports a multidisciplinary (hyper linked Wilipedia) study involving physics and engineering. It presents a very innovative solution for complex systems that is successfully verified on the basis of engineering principle such as feedback-system analysis in classical control theory. Furthermore, a new electrotype complex system simulator, shown in

This paper establishes a new solution that already released in other document [

Requirement: This is an important consideration for the editor or reader: if unfamiliar with control engineering, readers skip Sect 2 and try to perform a simulation directly using the simulator shown above and watching the simulation video clip (hyper linked) in YouTube.

Summary: The solution is validated and I believe that the results are convincing; if the readers have any questions, I recommend discussing with control engineers at first. This paper establishes that many systems in nature are closed-loop systems with feedback characteristics. In traditional physics, a complex system is deal with a black box. However, in this study, the complex system is not a black box but a feedback system, as shown in

1) What is a system in science?

According to Wikipedia, (Refer to “Wikipedia: Academic use” in Wikipedia), a system is a set of interacting or interdependent components forming an integrated whole, as shown

Most scientists believe that complex systems are chaotic and cannot be solved; hence, they are considered as a

Type | System | |
---|---|---|

Artificial system | Engineering system | Plant control system, Computer system |

Natural system → Complex system | Physical system | Thermodynamic system, Climate change system, etc. |

Human system | Stock market system, Social system | |

Ecological system | Ecosystem, Biological system |

mysterious problem. In this paper, I analyze three complex systems using my model.

2) Modeling thermodynamic systems in physics

All complex systems in science have feedback characteristics that involve the law of the conservation of energy, which is a law of thermodynamics. One such system is shown in

The entropy of solar energy tends to move toward only the low-temperature side through G(s). The time-se- ries function for S, the entropy of heat, is given by

Accordingly, G(s) in

where s is the Laplace operator.

The side Y(s) in

negative characteristics; the entropy of the attraction power restricts the overall energy overflow. However, the system shown in

3) Modeling the stock market system as a complex system

The stock market is a representative complex system. It has the same inner mechanisms as the feedback system shown in

4) Modeling ecological systems

Ecological systems are similar to the system shown in

In the struggle for survival, the fertility rate decreases, thus affecting population growth. Therefore, the increase of the deer population is restrained and the number of deer converges to a fixed value, as shown by the flowchart in

Therefore, the ecosystem is a feedback system similar to that shown in

1) Overview of the classical control theory

Unfortunately, most physicists are not familiar with the classical control theory, which is the fundamental theoretical background of a basic system. However, the theory is not discussed in this paper. For a discussion of

the basic model of a feedback system between the input U(s) and output Y(s) in real time and its general mathematical solution (

2) Description of the mathematical solution

In

yields

If A = 0, B = 1, then

riodic function of

USA). The program is generally applicable to mathematical solutions using the Laplace transform of a system problem.

This paper presents a simulator based on the schematic in

In reference [

For the more detail described again,

sine wave form shows regularity; 3) the decrease in the sine wave form with convergence shows self-organi- zation; and 4) there is irregularity at the output because the input and output are not identical and overlap. Furthermore, it appears that regardless of the circumstances, the output y(t) never exhibits runaway or overflow. In addition, the complex system cannot be completely controlled externally. In step two, the input value as variable random function x(t), shown by the blue curve in

This paper provides a new solution for complex systems and demonstrates that this system is not a black box. A complex system in nature is a closed-loop system with negative feedback characteristics and conserves energy. It can be analyzed using systems analysis of classical control theory, which is well known in engineering. The characteristics of a complex system were verified using a simulator. It was found that the complex system is a feedback system with an internal structure, as shown in

This paper suggests that a complex system is a natural closed-loop system with a feedback, discloses its internal structure, and proposes a simulator that implements the same characteristics. After verification of the findings presented in this paper, they have the potential to be used in many studies.

Deok-SooCha, (2015) Establishment of New Solution for Complex Systems in Multidisciplinary Sci-ence Based on Feedback System Analysis Method and Proven by Simulator. Journal of Modern Physics,06,1927-1934. doi: 10.4236/jmp.2015.613198

Questionnaire about automatic control engineering: (solutions and basic equation) the figure below shows a block diagram and transfer function that can be used to analyze a feedback system, whether the solution is known or not.

This paper introduces a system simulator based on

Overview of the system simulator: The simulator, the design of which is shown in

The electronics circuit is illustrated in

which is equivalent to Equation (4). In addition, various system characteristics can be implemented by adjusting the resistance R and capacitance C in the circuit. The simulation process, shown in