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In this paper, in order to increase system capacity and reduce the transmitting power of the user's equipment, we propose a efficient power estimation algorithm consisting of a modified open-loop power control (OLPC) and closed-loop power control (CLPC) for mobile satellite communications systems. The improved CLPC scheme, combining delay compensation algorithms and pilot diversity, is mainly applied to the ancillary ter-restrial component (ATC). ATC link in urban areas, because it is more suitable to the short round-trip delay (RTD). In the case of rural areas, where ATCs are not deployed or where a signal is not received from ATCs, transmit power monitoring equipment and OLPC schemes using efficient pilot diversity are combined and ap-plied to the link between the user's equipment and the satellite. Two modified power control schemes are ap-plied equally to the boundary areas where two kinds of signals are received in order to ensure coverage conti-nuity. Simulation results show that the improved power control scheme has good performance compared to conventional power control schemes in a geostationary earth orbit (GEO) satellite system utilizing ATCs.

In 4G systems, the major role of satellites will be to provide terrestrial fill-in service and efficient multicasting/broadcasting services [

This paper examines power control and handover using position information in land mobile satellite communication systems containing an ATC. The MSV’s hybrid system architecture is shown in

SIR estimation is one of the key aspects of the OLPC and CLPC scheme and is typically needed for functions such as power control, handoff, adaptive coding, and modulation. Efficient channel estimation is compared with a channel estimation method using only the pilot symbols of the common pilot channel (CPICH), as well as a channel estimation method combining the pilot symbols of the dedicated physical control channel (DPCCH) and those of the CPICH.

Equation (1) represents a channel estimation using N symbols of the CPICH in one slot after a multipath fading and a dispreading process in a RAKE receiver.

x(i)=α(i)+n(i) for i=1, 2, …, N (1)

in which α(i) is a channel gain to be estimated. Equation (2) shows a method for estimating a channel by combining the pilot symbols of the dedicated physical channel (DPCH) and CPICH. A receiver of a terminal acknowledges a pilot pattern for pilot symbols of the DPCCH in a manner similar to Equation (1).

y(j) = λ(j)α(j) + m(j) for j = 1,2,…, M (2)

in which λ(j)=(1/μ(j))^{1/2} refers to the power ratio of the pilot symbols of the DPCH and those of the CPICH. Equation (3) shows a method for estimating a channel by combining the pilot symbols of the DPCH, those of the CPICH, and those of the secondary common control physical channel (S-CCPCH).

z(k) = λ_{1}(k)α(k) + l(k) for k = 1,2,…, K (3)

in which λ_{1}(k)=(1/μ_{1}(k))^{1/2} refers to the power ratio of the pilot symbols of the S-CCPCH and those of the CPICH. In Equations (1)-(3), N, M, and K are the number of pilot symbols in one slot of the CPICH, DPCH, and S-CCPCH used in estimating a channel gain, respectively. And n(i), m(j), and l(k) are presumed AWGNs that have zero means and σ^{2} variances, respectively. Since it is presumed that the channel gain is not changed during one slot of an estimation period, α(∙) and λ_{1}(∙) become α and λ_{1}, respectively. Since channelization codes used in the CPICH, the DPCH, and the S-CCPCH are different from each other, n(i), m(j), and l(k) are independent of each other. A vector of a signal received in a rake receiver of a terminal is as follows:

z’=[x(1)x(2)…x(N)y(1)y(2)…y(M)z(1)z(2)…z(L)]^{T}

where T denotes an operator of a transpose matrix. If λ, λ_{1}, and α are known, a conditional probability density function is as follows:

where α denotes a channel estimation value (case 1) using the CPICH, λ denotes a channel estimation value (case 2) combining the DPCH and the CPICH [_{1}_{ }denotes a channel estimation value (case 3) combining the CPICH, the DPCH, and the S-CCPCH [

If λ_{1} is known, the output Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) is that shown by Equation (7) [

Accordingly, comparing [

As a result, it can be seen that the channel estimation combining the CPICH, the DPCH, and the S-CCPCH is superior to both the channel estimation using only the CPICH and the channel estimation combining the CPICH and the DPCH.

A modified OLPC and CLPC model is shown in

In order to improve the accuracy of the estimation of SIR, we proposed a method to estimate the interference power, which will be presented as follows.

In _{b}, and T_{c} denote n-th slot, k-th symbol, l-th resoluble multi-path, bit duration, and chip duration, respectively. Since the interference noise is Gaussian distributed, the variance of the interference can be found from the sum of the variances of the amplitude of the I channel and Q channel, as follows: [

I = E|R_{I}|^{2}^{ }+ E|R_{Q}|^{2} (9)

Desired signal S is achieved by calculating the summation of the S_{l} from the 1 to L tap RAKE receiver.

According to Friis’ free-space propagation-path-loss Formula [

P_{r}= |E|^{2}/2η_{0}_{ }= P_{0}[1/(4πd/λ)]^{2} (11)

where P_{0} = P_{t}G_{t}G_{m} and η_{0}, P_{t}, G_{t}, and G_{m }denote intrinsic impedance of free-space, transmitted power, gain of the transmitting antenna, and gain of the receiving antenna, respectively. Path loss and shadowing effects are regarded as slow fading in this work. The general openloop response of the OLPC can be approximated as follows: [

O(t) = -DP_{in}(1-exp(-t/τ)u(t) (12)

in which DP_{in}, τ, and O(t) are the step change in mean input power, the time constant of the open-loop response, and the output, respectively.

CLPC is a powerful tool to mitigate near-far problems in a DS-CDMA system over Rayleigh fading channels.

Because of a significant difference in the RTD, there is serious performance degradation of the CLPC if the power control used for the terrestrial interface is employed as is. In order to reduce power control error, a delay compensation mechanism was selected in the ATC and satellite.

The transmitting power control (TPC) commands are generated as follows. Firstly, let us define power control error of D_{ε,c}_{ }= SIR_{est}_{ }- SIR_{target} + D_{loop delay}, where D_{loop delay} and SIR_{est} denote the prediction for the amount of SIR increment/decrement of the received downlink CPICH, S-CCPCH, and the estimated SIR of the received downlink DPCCH during the next time interval equal to the loop delay, respectively. Therefore, D_{loop delay} is added to SIR_{est} to result in the predicted SIR value of SIR_{est,}_{ pred}.

D_{loop delay}_{ }= n × D_{pred} (13)

where n × D_{pred} is the increment (or decrement) of the estimated SIR of CPICH and S-CCPCH in dB during the last frame, and n is the nearest integer to (loop delay)/ (frame length).

A four-level quantized power control step, D_{p}, is generated according to the region of D, as follows:

if | D_{ε,c} | < ε_{T} and D_{ε,c} <0, D_{p}(i) = D_{S}

if | D_{ε,c} | < ε_{T} and D_{ε,c} >0, D_{p}(i) = -D_{S}

if | D_{ε,c} | > ε_{T} and D_{ε,c} <0, D_{p}(i) = D_{L}

if | D_{ε,c} | > ε_{T} and D_{ε,c} >0, D_{p}(i) = -D_{L}

in which D_{S}, D_{L}, and ε_{T} are a small power control step, a large power control step, and the error threshold, respectively. Because of the RTD in the GEO system, the satellite radio access network (S-RAN) can reflect D_{p}(i) at its transmission power after about 250ms, during which time there may be a considerable change in the SIR. The S-RAN adjusts the transmitting power of the downlink DPCCH with an amount of DPCCH using the two most recently received power control steps, D_{p}(i) and D_{p}(i-1), and this can be modeled as a simple FIR filter, as follows: [

D_{DPCCH} = D_{p}(i) - αD_{p}(i-1) (14)

We can rewrite the above equation as follows:

D_{DPCCH} = (1-α)D_{p}(i) + α(D_{p}(i) - D_{p}(i-1)) (15)

which means that D_{DPCCH} is determined not only by D_{p}(i) but also by the difference between D_{p}(i) and D_{p}(i-1) with weighting factors of (1-α) and α, respectively.

A channel with only fast fading and a channel with path loss, slow fading, and fast fading were simulated to examine the performance of the CLPC with and without an OLPC. The simulation parameters are given in

In our simulations, we consider a satellite system with a single beam and ignore the inter-spot interference. We assumed power control begins to work after 250$ms$ due to propagation delay.

Figures 4 and 5 show the average transmitting power consumed at the transmitters of specific users according to mobile speed. It is observed that average UE transmitted power of all schemes is dependent of mobile speed. However, we can see that users with a combination of the modified OLPC and CLPC scheme consume less power. It is also seen that at low vehicle speeds (<40

km/h), combining modified OLPC and CLPC (SCHEME-I shown with a solid line) is very effective. This is because SCHEME-I compensates slow fading and path loss by monitoring transmitting power of UE and simultaneously archives diversity gain by using efficient channel estimation algorithms.

Figures 6 and 7 show the average received power consumed at the transmitters of specific users according to mobile speed. We can see that the received power of users with a combination of the modified OLPC and CLPC scheme using pilot diversity is settled compared to the other scheme. This highlights the importance of monitoring transmitting power equipment applying for a CDMA-based system. With a RAKE receiver, the dynamic range of the received power decreased as the monitoring equipment decreased.

Figures 8 and 9 show the probability density function of the received SIRs for a mobile speed of 98km/h having a probability of power control command error of 0. Intuitively, we turn out that the SCHEME-I using pilot

diversity has a larger improvement, as confirmed in the simulation results.

Conventional channel estimation methods incur many errors in the case of deep fading. In contrast, the proposed channel estimation method using the S-CCPCH to the conventional methods can obtain an improved pilot diversity gain by performing channel estimation using other channels when the first channel does not reach a required level of a received signal. Thus, it is possible to implement an ideal maximum ratio combining method in a RAKE receiver. The channel estimation method described in this paper provides a more improved performance than channel estimation in a receiver of a terminal having conventional pilot symbols of a CPICH or a DPCCH by combining pilot symbols of a CPICH, a DPCCH, and a S-CCPCH, and estimating a channel. In this paper, we have presented satellite access technologies for a future mobile system. We suggested desirable modifications for application to the 4G system. Combining modified CLPC and OLPC with delay compensation algorithms and monitoring equipment proved to provide a good performance in a MSS/ATC hybrid system. In addition, to increase the performance and to keep commonalities between terrestrial standards, more advanced transmission technologies, including multi-carrier transmission, interference cancellation, and highly efficient modulation and coding should be investigated in more detail.

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