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The one-dimensional quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model for a three - specie quantum plasma is used to study the quantum counterpart of the well known dust ion-acoustic wave (DIAW). It is found that owing to the quantum effects , the dynamics of small but fi nite amplitude quantum dust ion-acoustic waves (QDIA) is governed by a deformed Korteweg-de Vries equation (dK-dV). The latter admits compressive as well as rarefactive stationary QDIA solitary wave solution. In the fully quantum case, the QDIA soliton experiences a spreading which becomes more signi fi cant as electron depletion is enhanced.

Linear as well as nonlinear collective processes in dusty or complex plasmas have received special attention in the past decade mainly due to the realization of their occurrence in both the laboratory and space environments [1-3]. A dusty plasma is a normal electron-ion plasma with an additional highly charged component of small micron or sub-micron sized extremely massive charged particulates (dust grains). Wave propagation in such complex systems is therefore expected to be substantially different from the ordinary two component plasmas and the presence of charged dust can have a strong influence on the characteristics of the usual plasma wave modes, even at frequencies where the dust grains do not participate in the wave motion. It has been found that the presence of static charged dust grains modifies the existing plasma wave spectra. On the other hand, it has been shown that the dust dynamics introduces new eigenmodes, such as, dust-acoustic (DA) mode [

We consider a system consisting of electrons, singly charged positive ions, equiradius spherical dust grains carrying identical charge and mass. The nonlinear dynamics of low phase velocity QDIA oscillations is governed by the one-dimensional quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model

The dust grains are usually much heavier than the ions and electrons and their dynamics is on a much longer time. They are taken to be immobile and negatively charged, , where is the number of charges residing on the dust grain, u_{e,i} is the electron (ion) fluid velocity, is the electrostatic potential, refers to the charged particles number density, indicates the corresponding equilibrium values with obvious labels e, i and d, m_{j} are the mass, while represents the scaled Planck’s constant. We assume that the electrons obey the following pressure law in a one-dimensional zero-temperature Fermi gas [24,25,35].

where is the electron Fermi speed, k_{B} the Boltzmann constant, and T_{Fe} the electron Fermi temperature. For the sake of simplicity, pressure effects are disregarded for ions. Notice that the quantum corrections (quantum diffraction and quantum statistics) appear through the terms proportional to in (3) and (4) and via the equation of state (6). Adopting the following normalization

where is the corresponding ion plasma frequency, and is a quantum ion-acoustic velocity, Equations (1)-(5) can be rewritten as

Here, measures the unperturbed ion and electron number density imbalance, and

is a nondimensional quantum parameter determining the ratio between the electron plasmon energy and the electron Fermi energy, where

is the corresponding electron plasma frequency. Neglecting the left-hand side of Equation (8) due to, integrating once and discarding terms proportional to in Equation (10), we obtain the following reduced model

It may be useful to note that in the linear limit, the system (12)-(13) gives

where ω and k represent, respectively, the normalized wave frequency and the normalized wave number.

To study small but finite amplitude QDIA solitary waves, we follow the well known reductive perturbation technique [_{d}, to be determined later. Substituting power series expansions of and

into Equations (12)-(15) gives to lowest order in ε, and. Considering the next higher order in ε, we obtain the following set of equations

from which we derive the following equation

Equation (23) is a deformed Korteweg-de Vries equation (dK-dV) in which quantum diffraction is responsible for the term proportional to. For, we can transform the independent variables and τ to and, where is a normalized constant speed and impose appropriate boundary conditions for localized perturbations, namely

as. Performing the last step in deriving soliton solutions, one gets

where and

represent the amplitude and the width of the solitary wave, respectively. Note that U_{m}_{ }does no longer depend on H_{e}. Despite the fact that quantum effects leave the absolute amplitude of the QDIA soliton unaffected, for H_{e} smaller or greater than 2 the soliton may exhibit compression (with a phase spped) or rarefaction (with a phase speed). As a result of quantum effects, the QDIA soliton experiences either a compression for H_{e} < 2 (

of δ and H_{e} which make U_{m} large enough to break the validity of the weakly nonlinear analysis have to be discarded).

To conclude, we have addressed the problem of quantum dust ion-acoustic solitary waves. The dynamics of small but finite amplitude QDIA waves is governed by a deformed Korteweg-de Vries equation. The latter admits compressive as well as rarefactive stationary solitary wave solution. For, the quantum effects tend to lower the soliton width. In the fully quantum case, the QDIA soliton experiences a spreading which becomes more significant as the unperturbed ion and electron number density imbalance is enhanced. Our results should help for diagnostics of charged impurities in micloelectronics and to understand the salient features of coherent nonlinear structures that may occur in space quantum dusty plasmas.