^{1}

^{*}

^{2}

Riemann zeta function is an important tool in signal analysis and number theory. Applications of the zeta function include e.g. the generation of irrational and prime numbers. In this work we present a new accelerated series for Riemann zeta function. As an application we describe the recursive algorithm for computation of the zeta function at odd integer arguments.

The Riemann zeta function defined as for complex numbers s with

has a central role in number theory and appears in many areas of science and technology [

In this work we describe a new accelerated series for the Riemann zeta function at integer arguments. The main result is involved in Theorem 1.

Theorem 1: Let us suppose that is the Riemann zeta function defined by (1). The following series converges as

In Section 2 we give the proof of Theorem 1. In Section 3 we present derivatives of Theorem 1 and describe the method for accelerating the zeta function series given by Theorem 1. In Section 4 we describe the recursive algorithm for evaluation of the Riemann zeta function at integer arguments.

We may deduce

The series (2) converges very slowly. However, we may write

which has an accelerated convergence. The proof is now completed.

Lemma 1: For

Proof: Similar as Theorem 1.

Lemma 2: For

Proof: Follows directly from Lemma 1 by elimination of the first term in series (4).

Lemma 3:

Proof: Similar as Theorem 1.

Lemma 4:

Proof: Follows directly Lemma 3.

Lemmas 3 and 4 can be generalised as Lemma 5: For

Lemma 6: For

The last series (Lemma 6) can be further generalized as Lemma 7: For and

The series can be further accelerated by noting that. We may write Lemma 7 as

which gives Lemma 8: For and

From Lemma 8 we may deduce Lemma 9: For and

The last series can be computed if, are known. This leads to the fast recursive computation of the zeta function. Especially for we obtain the sequential values as

Both series in (13) have accelerated convergence and to obtain the required accuracy only a few previously computed, values are needed.

In this work we present a new accelerated series for Riemann zeta function. The key observation is presented in Theorem 1. The infinite summation of the zeta functions weighted by can be represented by fast converging series. One application is the recursive computation of the zeta function from the sequence of previously known zeta function values. The recursive algorithm can be initialised using (13), which has itself accelerated convergence. Especially in high values of the first series in (13) has high convergence due to the term in the denominator.

The zeta function values for odd integers are generally believed to be irrational, thought consistent proof is given only for [6,7]. The irrational number sequences, which can be easily reproduced from a few parameters are important e.g. in encryption coding. The recursive algorithm (Lemma 9) serves as a good candidate for the irrational number generator, since it requires only two parameters. By altering the parameters a countless number of irrational number sequences are obtained.

Recently a close connection with the log-time sampled signals and the zeta function has been observed [

This work was supported by the National Technology Agency of Finland (TEKES). The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments.