_{1}

^{*}

The paper presents the case that physics is already and effectively unified by the energetic tension field, ether. We identify this integrating power of ether first, by re-defining the action generating parameters of this energetic tension field as the electric-tension,
*μ*
_{0}, while re-deriving the Maxwell’s wave equation in analogy with the mechanically stretched string, where the
*m*
_{0} by
*μ*
_{0}. To complete the unification, we can now postulate that the particles are also freely propagating EM waves, but they are spatially localized as in-phase, close-looped (IP-CL) vortex-like propagation modes of ether. Because of their IP-CL mode structure, they have space-finite spatial structures and remain spatially stationary in the absence of any spatially influencing potential gradients (forces) in their vicinity. Particles’
*harmonic phase* driven interactions between quantum particles give birth to the
*appearance* of wave-particle duality. There is no need for the confusing and unnecessary de Broglie’s Pilot Wave. The inertia to spatial motion of IP-CL modes automatically accommodates Newton’s laws of motion. The cosmic universality of Maxwellian wave velocity, and particles as IP-CL modes, jointly accommodate the two key postulates of special relativity without the need for unphysical four-dimensionality. The observable universe is represented only by its diverse oscillatory excited states. The stable and stationary Cosmic Ether keeps holding 100% of its energy all the time. We have proposed a one-way light pulse propagation experiment to directly validate the existence of ether, rather than approaching Michelson’s way of measuring the ether drag. We have identified a good number of examples of working theoretical expressions in terms of
* μ*
_{0} and presented our critical views in physics thinking, belonging to Classical, Relativity, Quantum and Cosmology Physics.

Since ancient times, ether has been recognized as the physical medium for the transportation of light all across the cosmic space [

We believe that the key tool is to think like a system engineer—visualize the invisible physical interaction processes that nature is utilizing to maintain the ongoing perpetual and causally ordered evolution in the universe. Evidence based science, or experimentally validated theory, has been stagnant for some time [

All perpetual wave propagation requires a parent tension field, like air-pressure-tension field for sound waves. Maxwell’s wave equation and his differential calculus based derivation of the velocity of light, c 0 2 = ( 1 / ε 0 μ 0 ) , does not identify what represents the built-in tension of the ether field and what provides the reactional resistance against the generation of the electric vector. In Section 2, we re-derive EM wave equation using Newton’s first two laws, the inertia of rest and the inertia of motion, to identify that ε 0 − 1 & μ 0 physically represent the electric tension and the magnetic resistance, respectively, to generate the perpetually moving EM waves in ether.

In section 3, we use the physics of light propagation to analyze why Michelson’s null experiment failed to validate either the ether-drag, or the very existence of ether. We then use this knowledge to develop and propose a one-way light pulse propagation experiment that can directly validate the existence of ether.

Section 4 details the core of this paper. It explores the unifying roles of ε 0 − 1 & μ 0 throughout major physics theories. We have proposed that the elementary particles arise as perpetually moving EM waves, but with a complex, and localized doughnut-like wave motion. The wave motion is in-phase, closed-looped (IP-CL), somewhat like a stable ring laser with perpetually recycling EM wave. We have discussed how the IP-CL model accommodates most of the quantum mechanical behaviors of particles and atoms and resolves wave-particle duality. We have also discussed that the measurable superposition effect, always registered by a finite size detector, must be a causal and local phenomenon. We cite examples to justify the emergence of gravity out of electromagnetism. Our cosmic ether model naturally accommodates the two key postulates of the special theory of relativity without the need for a four dimensional universe.

The section 5 has two subsections—first conclusion and then discussions, presenting further justification of our physics-thinking.

Maxwell derived his wave equation by first reconstructing the integral forms of the already existing empirical laws from the integral calculus forms to the differential calculus forms of the 1) Ampere’s law, 2) Faraday’s law, 3) Coulomb’s law, and 4) the absence of magnetic monopole. His derivation gave the velocity of light as c 0 2 = 1 / ε 0 μ 0 . These parameters ε 0 & μ 0 were already defined by his predecessors as electric permittivity and magnetic permeability of the free space, respectively. These descriptions do not clarify the operational origin, or the engineering lever used by nature to generate the observed perpetual velocity of EM waves in the “free space”. Inspection of the wave equation for an ideal classical mechanical tension field, like that for a long stretched string, does imply the emergence of a perpetually propagating wave, once the string is externally perturbed, provided there are no energy dissipating mechanism associated with the string. Accordingly, we will derive the EM wave equation emulating the procedure used for a mechanically stretched string. In other words, we will unite Newtonian particle mechanics (2^{nd} law) with Maxwellian wave mechanics. We also justify the emergence of Newtonian inertia of “mass” out of the electromagnetic properties of the free space, or ether, using Einstein’s mass-energy equivalence relation:

m 0 = E 0 / c 0 2 = E 0 ε 0 μ 0 (1)

The first part of this equation is very well validated in the fields of chemistry and physics. The second part is an identity relation from Maxwell’s wave equation. Accordingly, we feel confident that ε 0 & μ 0 , associated with a lump of energy E 0 must play critical roles in the emergence of inertia of a material particle of mass m 0 .

We are now re-defining ε 0 − 1 as the “electric tension” in analogy with the mechanical tension “T” on a stretched string and μ 0 as “magnetic resistance” in analogy with the “inertia (or mass) per unit length” σ [

ε 0 − 1 ( ∂ E 2 / ∂ x − ∂ E 1 / ∂ x ) = ( μ 0 Δ x ) ( ∂ 2 E / ∂ t 2 ) (2)

By rearranging the parameters and by taking the limit Δ x → 0 , we get the Maxwell’s wave equation:

ε 0 − 1 lim Δ x → 0 1 Δ x [ ∂ E 2 ∂ x − ∂ E 1 ∂ x ] = μ 0 ∂ 2 E ∂ t 2 ⇒ ∂ 2 E ∂ t 2 = ε 0 − 1 μ 0 ∂ 2 E ∂ x 2 ≡ c 0 2 ∂ 2 E ∂ x 2 (3)

Thus, by re-deriving Maxwell’s wave Equation (3) in analogy with a classical stretched string, we have found the operational (functional) meaning behind the emergence of perpetual velocity of an EM wave in its parent tension field, the Cosmic Ether. In general, an energetic tension field tends to stay in its energetic quiescent state. If a disturbance is introduced at a point by some external energy, the tension field at that point immediately pushes it away to all possible spherically accessible neighboring points so that it can come back to its original quiescent (equilibrium) state. Then all the forward points execute the same actions to come back to their respective quiescent states. As if, the tension field is forever searching out for energy sinks to eliminate it, since the system cannot assimilate the external energy which triggered the original deformation on the quiescent tension field. In the absence of any frequency resonant energy sink, the process continues perpetually. Hence, a disturbance introduced on an energetic tension field, will always generate a perpetually moving wave. This engineering process (action) taking place behind wave propagation, was first presented by Huygens in his book of 1690 while describing the propagation of EM waves in free space [

By integrating Newtonian mechanics into classical electromagnetism, we have now established the physical reality of the electromagnetic tension properties of free space as ε 0 − 1 & μ 0 , with modified physical definition as “electric tension” and “magnetic resistance”, which give us the operational meaning behind the generation of perpetually moving EM wave when triggered by the movement of an electric dipole within it.

The cultural demise of electromagnetic ether in physics was triggered by the “null” results obtained by a series of Michelson-Morley experiments (MMX), starting from 1887 [

Then the 1905 paper by Einstein on Special Relativity (SR) [

To appreciate the limitations of MMX type of experiments, we need to pay close attention to the physical processes behind light propagation through material media and through material free ether. Huygens, contemporary of Newton, was the first one to frame the key postulate behind the propensity of waves to propagate perpetually leveraging an energetic parent tension field. Because the tension field keeps perpetually pushing away the waves, generated through some suitable perturbation of its quiescent energetic state. In his 1690 book [

Light also has another very interesting property. It always prefers to propagate through a structurally single mode medium of lower tension value (lower velocity with higher refractive index), whenever it has that option. This is why we have been able to invent and implement the fiber optic communication systems and sending the optical signals through glass-fiber-core of higher refractive index, surrounded by a protective glass cladding of lower index. Light remains entrained within the core of the glass-fiber for tens of thousands of kilometers with very little loss. Ether has the refractive index of n 0 = 1 and air has the refractive index n a i r = 1.0003 , or c a i r = c 0 / 1.0003 . Therefore, in the laboratory, the light beams will always be entrained by the stationary air surrounding any MMX interferometer, since air provides a relatively lower tension (higher index) medium for light to propagate. Light propagation will not be entrained by the lower index ether, even though it is permeating through all material media and the entire universe. Hence, the propagation direction of the light beam vector S = E × B in the MMX interferometer will always remain orthogonal to the pre-aligned mirrors, immersed in the laboratory air. The propagation path cannot be tilted, as was originally sketched by Michelson, shown in

Thus MMX type of experiments should always give null-fringe result. We do not need to assign a new property on to nature that needs to trigger “length contraction” or “time dilation”. If we assume that Michelson had believed ether entrained the light ray, and not the “thin” air in the laboratory, then the ether drag would have created an apparent tilted path for the arrival of the vertical ray and tilted return again, just as Michelson’s drawing in

In Section 2 we have established the deep significance for physics that we experimentally validate the cosmic space as a stationary energetic tension field. Experimental validation of Casimir Effect [

As mentioned earlier, the generic tendency of light is to choose to travel through the relatively lower tension (higher index and lower velocity) media. Further, the Poynting vector, orthogonal to the collimated optical beam, preserves its spatial direction, while obeying the basic laws of reflection and refraction. This has been pictorially shown in

We are proposing to test the presence of ether only by comparing the absence or presence of a shift in the arrival location of a collimated light pulse through one-way travel path, where the travel path is either filled with air as a medium ( n a i r = 1.0003 ), or is completely empty ( n e t h e r = 1 ), inside a super-vacuum chamber, or on a deep space satellite. Let us now assume that the wavelength of light is λ. Then one can argue that if the average number of air molecules within a volume of λ^{3} is statistically less than one, then the E-vector of the light beam would not experience a reduction in the effective tension value of that space. Light will now be guided as an undulation of the pure ether only, with minor amount of scattering of light from encounter with individual molecules.

We can now construct a very simple ether-sensor consisting of a rigid box (see

If the length of the bar is L = 1 m long, then the arrival delay for the light pulse would be 3.33 ns. Note that even though the dashed line of the apparent light path appears to be tilted and longer, the light pulse actually travels the same vertical distance L, while the box moves to the right. Physics of this propagation process is depicted by the vertical Poynting vectors, drawn on the cartoon-pulses, always pointing vertically up (

Let us assume that we are carrying out the experiment inside a super vacuum chamber leveraging earth’s orbital velocity of v = 30 km / sec by aligning the earth’s velocity vector orthogonal to the light-path-vector in the ether sensor. This would generate a lateral shift of:

δ x = v δ t = v L / c a i r ≃ 100 μ (4)

Such a lateral displacement can be easily measured by an off-the-shelf linear detector array, or a position sensing quadrant detector. Several countries who are advanced in space technologies can carry out this experiment. They have large vacuum chambers with low pressure capability around 10^{−10} Torr, implying less than about 0.1 air molecule per micron cube at typical room temperature. The visible wavelength being around 0.5 micron, a vacuum of 10^{−10} Torr satisfies the effective free-space condition.

This terrestrial experiment in high vacuum chamber should also be able to establish that air in Michelson’s experiment was keeping the light beam entrapped to straight path, instead of the tilted angular path assumed by Michelson, which consistently gave him the null fringe-shift results. One just need to slowly introduce air in the high vacuum chamber and observe that the light beam deflection reduces to zero at a certain pressure when there are a good number of air molecules per λ^{3}. The determination of this number of air molecules would be a valuable parameter in studying the fundamental physics behind the emergence of refractive index and the need for a certain number of air molecules per λ^{3} to generate an “effective continuous medium” for EM waves. It will also validate that the EM interaction cross section of Angstrom size atoms could be one or two orders of magnate larger than the λ^{2}, especially when the optical frequency is in resonance with quantum level transition of the chosen gas [

If the experiment, when carried out very carefully with the desired free-space equivalent vacuum condition, shows no lateral shift of the light spot, one possible conclusion would be that the ether is being fully dragged around its surface by the massive earth. We doubt this outcome because in our model, ether is universally stationary. EM waves and particles are the excited states of its various emergent potential gradients, not the physical field itself. EM wave propagation does not make the ether move. Further, the movements of material particles (or bodies) should create only changes in appropriate potential gradients around them.

Let us assume that the orthogonal velocity of a possible deep space satellite is v = 8 km / sec . Then the lateral displacement of the light spot would be:

δ x = v δ t = v L / c 0 = 26.7 μ (5)

This is also accurately measurable using an off-the-shelf position sensing quadrant detector. Here also we are assuming that a satellite cannot drag stationary ether.

In both the above experimental environment, one could employ a second identical ether sensor with the light vector path always aligned parallel to the box-velocity vector. Then, this second sensor should always show zero lateral shift in the arrival of the light spot. This will provide us with the extra confidence on the results of the experiments.

In the introduction, we have presented the argument that

c 0 = ( 1 / ε 0 μ 0 ) − 1 / 2 = ( ε 0 − 1 / μ 0 ) − 1 / 2 is a secondary derived parameter. In section 2,

we have re-derived Maxwell’s wave equation while re-defining the primary actionable parameters of the cosmic ether as ε 0 − 1 & μ 0 , electric tension and magnetic resistance, respectively. In this section, we show that these two actionable primary parameters are involved in all major theories of physics to validate our key assertion that the cosmic ether has already been functioning as the unifying field of physics.

In section 2, after the derivation of Maxwell’s wave equation, emulating the energetic mechanical tension field of a stretched string, we have explained how a tension field tries to consistently push away the external perturbation and ends up generating a perpetually moving wave. Material media also perpetually push away EM waves when they are generated inside the media, or wave pulses are sent inside them. In fact, the core properties of the EM wave propagation, including diffraction, are mathematically very similar in structure to those for the free space, except the values of the core parameters are modified by the aggregate properties of the material dipoles. The structure of the Poynting vector remains same. The velocity of EM waves becomes:

c m e d . 2 = ε m e d . − 1 / μ m e d . ≡ c 0 2 / n m e d . 2 (6)

For most material media, usually, μ m e d . ≈ 1 , giving rise to the well-known relation for the refractive index, n m e d ≈ ε m e d 1 / 2 , determined by the collective dipolar properties of the atoms and molecules within the media. One can then surmise that, functionally, the material media also behave as modified electromagnetic tension fields. We are then guided to postulate that the electrons, protons and neutrons, which build the atoms, and then the material media, should also represent some forms of emergent properties of the same cosmic ether.

Let us note from Equation (6) that the velocity of light waves are slower inside the material tension fields. Hence the material tension fields are weaker than the material-free Cosmic Ether. This is why material media offer an alternate wave energy sink for the ether. This is why, given the physical proximity, EM waves will always be pushed inside the lower tension (higher index) material media. In fact, the atoms and molecules, having quantum mechanical frequency-resonant energy levels, will always “pull” in the wave energy, while the EM tension fields will always tend to “push” in the wave energy, which is a perturbation to its quiescent state. This is a key point that we have utilized to explain as to why, in Michelson’s ether-drag cartoon,

Quantum theories are functional field theories [

It is important to appreciate again the emergence of perpetual velocity of EM wave (or any wave) once it has been triggered on its supportive energetic tension field, which is ether for us. This will help us integrate classical mechanics with the quantum mechanics at the very foundation of the emergence of waves and material particles.

The concept is already built into the physical-process driven derivation of the EM wave equation, Equation (3). It models the real physical processes in nature, which engenders the perpetual motion (propagation) of a wave once triggered due to some energetic perturbation on the vast electromagnetic complex tension field, ether. Equation (3) is a linear first order differential equation allowing for the Superposition Principle (SP). Second, it equates a temporal second derivative (“temporal acceleration”) with a spatial second derivative (“spatial acceleration”). This equality, or the built-in balancing condition set by our math implies that we have correctly modeled nature—one of the fundamental tendency of an energetic tension field is to restore its original quiescent energetic state by getting rid of the perturbation energy. If it does not have built-in energy dissipation mechanism, then it will keep pushing away the perturbation perpetually because every pint of a tension field wants to stay in its energetic quiescent state (recall Huygens postulate [

i ℏ ∂ ψ ( x , t ) ∂ t = − ℏ 2 2 m ∂ 2 ψ ( x , t ) ∂ x 2 + V ( x , t ) ψ ( x , t ) (7)

potential gradient V ( x , t ) , Schrodinger’s particle does not move spatially. However, like the EM wave equation, it is also a second order linear differential equation and hence accommodates complex amplitude-driven Superposition Principle (SP). Equation (7) does have a “spatial acceleration” term, ∂ 2 ψ ( x , t ) / ∂ x 2 ; but does not have a balancing “temporal acceleration” term like that for the EM wave, Equation (3). The temporal derivative term, ∂ ψ ( x , t ) / ∂ t , is first order. Obviously, Schrodinger’s particles are not spontaneously moving waves, like the EM waves are. Schrodinger’s particles cannot be real physical waves, or guided by “Pilot Waves”, even though it works through SP, Ψ = ∑ n ψ n , and the observables are Ψ ∗ Ψ . We have thus created a natural platform for conceptual confusions without properly defining the origin of the Newtonian inertia of elementary particles, while allowing for the initial interaction processes between particles through superposition of their complex amplitudes. This is clearly the foundational limitation of eminently successful QM formalism. It is an incomplete theory, as perceived by Einstein.

We can now justify our postulate of the emergence of elementary particles as localized, self-looped in-phase (IP-CL), EM wave oscillations of the ether. The self-looped EM wave oscillation is perceived by the ether as if it is perpetually pushing it away forever, satisfying the core restoration property of any energetic tension field. Now, this IP-CL wave loop has developed a natural tendency of inertia of motion, until it is subjected to some physical potential slope (gradient) in its vicinity; even stopping it would require a separate opposing potential gradient. We thus see the natural propensity of particles to obey Newton’s two laws of motion. “Locality” of spatially localized particles is inherently undeniable. Further, Newton’s third law of real physical action-interaction through energy exchange, guided by some compatible force between the particles, must also be accepted as physical reality, that strengthens the locality defined by the physical range of the force. There is really no wave-particle duality, even though the particles are structurally localized IP-CL wave loops. However, particles do have oscillatory complex amplitudes which guide the energy exchange process through the QM superposition principle. Interactions are guided by forces, which we consider as various types of physical potential gradients around them, generated due to the internal complex EM wave motions. Newton’s action-reaction is built into these mutually influencing “potential gradients”, as they equally try to influence each other.

The quantization of particle energies also emerges naturally from the famous relation, E = h f i c l , the subscript “icl” is added to underscore the “internal closed-loop” electromagnetic oscillation. The stability, or the life time, of various particles are now determined by the degree of phase matching in the in-phase closed-loop wave propagation. Protons and electrons must have the most precisely phase-matched internal IP-CL oscillations since we do not see them decay.

The phase matching requirements for the closed-looped oscillation also dictates that the energies of the stable particles cannot assume just any values. In fact, Greulich [

E p r t . = N ( E e l . / α ) ; ⇒ f i c l p r t . = ( 1 / α ) N f i c l e l . (8)

Equation (8), we have re-written it in terms of IP-CL wave frequencies. One can notice some similarity with the closed-cavity longitudinal laser frequency modes with a relation of integral multiples. For particles heavier than electrons, IP-CL frequencies keep increasing linearly as some integral multiple, reduced by the inverse α -factor. This provides some extra corroboration that particles are perpetually propagating localized IP-CL EM modes of the ether, somewhat like a circular laser. However, the wave motions have to be very much more complex to be able to generate quantized charge and spin properties.

We should now clarify here that Schrodinger’s complex amplitude representation, ψ ∼ a exp [ − i 2 π f i c l t ] , for a free particle should have never been interpreted as a “plane wave”. The conservation law tells us that a “plane wave”, existing for all time and spread over all space, cannot exist in this real world. We use the very similar mathematical expression exp [ ± i 2 π f t ] routinely to analyze the properties of classical pendulum, or of classical AC current oscillators. Further, the oscillatory complex amplitude property, displayed by particles, do not require any separate guidance from de Broglie’s “Pilot Waves” because they themselves are IP-Cl harmonic oscillators, containing the necessary complex amplitudes. Originally, the idea was introduced to accommodate the wave-like superposition effects shown by particles. Besides, de Broglie’s postulate has a problem of built-in mathematical non-causality (Equation (9)), since the postulated wavelength of the Pilot Wave diverges to infinity as the particle velocity tends to zero:

λ k ≡ h p ⇒ λ k L t . v → 0 = L t . v → 0 h m 0 v → ∞ (9)

We have mentioned Planck’s advice in the introduction that it is important to identify the primary action parameter of natural entities to model their interaction processes. To model particle-particle superposition effects on “external” (“third party”) detecting molecules through Superposition Principle, we need to postulate that the particles acquire a different kinetic frequency f k (different from internal IP-CL frequency f i c l ). In particle-particle interactions, including kinetic collisions, f i c l , or h f i c l play key roles while bringing about structural transformations. We now postulate a causal de Broglie kinetic frequency f k , defined as ( 1 / 2 ) m v 2 = h f k which provides us with the necessary harmonic frequency and phase, a exp [ − i 2 π f k t ] , to model particle superposition phenomenon. The causality for the de Broglie frequency is preserved (Equation (10)):

f k ≡ m 2 h v 2 ⇒ f k L t . v → 0 = L t v → 0 m 2 h v 2 → 0 (10)

Recall that frequencies of oscillators are the primary characteristic parameters and are determined by the intrinsic tension property that promotes the physical oscillation.

We should first recognize that charge is an emergent property out of electromagnetism. While we have found that mathematically the sum of positive and negative charges are always conserved in particle-particle interactions, physically, the charges can completely vanish, as in electron-positron collision: e − + e + ⇌ γ + γ . It is clear that we can create charge by manipulating electromagnetic gamma waves. Since γ waves are created out of ether, then the charge-property displayed by e − and e + has to emerge out of some form of IP-CL structure of the electromagnetic wave of the ether that allows the formation of electrons and positrons, and hence all other elementary particles also.

Very precisely measured fine structure constant α = ( 1 / 137 ) [

α = e 2 2 h 1 ε 0 c 0 = e 2 2 h ( ε 0 − 1 μ 0 ) 1 / 2 ⇒ e 2 = 2 α h 1 ( ε 0 − 1 μ 0 ) 1 / 2 (11)

In the first part of the above Equation (11), we have re-expressed α in terms of the primary parameters ε 0 − 1 & μ 0 by replacing the secondary derived parameter c 0 . Then we have re-expressed the charge in terms of ε 0 − 1 & μ 0 , multiplied by the α -constant and Planck’s quantization constant h, two precisely measured constants of nature. So, we have re-expressed the emergence of charge in terms of ε 0 − 1 & μ 0 (second part in Equation (11)). The square of the quantized charge is inversely proportional to the square root of the product of the electric tension and the magnetic resistance, built into ether as its key functional properties.

Notice that expressing the secondary parameter c 0 in terms of the constituent primary parameters brings back the role of the electric tension and the magnetic resistance in the formation of the elementary particles as IP-CL waves. However, it tells us more. One now needs to visualize the physical processes behind the emergence of quantized charge. Somewhat similar approach is being contemplated by many scientists [

Maxwell’s wave equation indicates that the wave propagates as a continuously oscillating ±E-vector as if it is a localized emergent oscillating charge, equivalent to an oscillating current, while triggering the emergence of a resisting orthogonal and oscillating magnetic field. Then, it is not difficult to appreciate that localized Maxwellian IP-CL wave inherently contains oscillating charge and magnetic properties, which the elementary particles do display. Now the challenge is to visualize and mathematically model some localized IP-Cl wave structures that can display static (stationary with the particle) charge-curvatures of opposite slopes around electron and positron models (and eventually to proton models). The “spin” would be a natural consequence of the self-looped waves inside the IP-CL oscillation with its own Poynting vector. It is now conceptually clear to appreciate the emergence of quantumness in the particle world out of the 3D classical ether. The wave particle-duality is real and it is built-in structurally and permanently, not due to some dependence on the type of experimental set up. We do not need the large number of strange, and non-causal, quantum philosophical interpretations to “understand” quantum mechanics.

The rest energies of the electron and the proton are 0.510 MeV, and 938.272 MeV, respectively. Then, using E = h f i c l , and h = 4.135 × 10 − 15 eV ⋅ s , we get the E-vector frequencies of the close-looped EM waves for the electron and proton as f i c l e l = 1.233 × 10 20 s − 1 and f i c l p r = 2.269 × 10 23 s − 1 , respectively. These oscillations for electrons and protons are in the very high energy gamma-wave region, which do not spread out diffractively, unlike much lower frequency EM waves that diffract. This non-diffractive propensity of extremely high frequency EM waves allow for the formation of stable and localized IP-CL waves. It is well validated that the diffractive spread is inversely proportional to the frequency of the EM waves. It is built into Huygens-Fresnel diffraction integral [

Let us note that the quantized energy levels E n of Hydrogen atoms are also guided by ε 0 − 1 & μ 0 because the inertia (mass) of electrons is due to its IP-CL wave structure (Equation (12)):

E n = m e e 4 8 ε 0 2 h 2 1 n 2 = ( E e l 0 ε 0 μ 0 ) e 4 8 h 2 ε 0 2 1 n 2 = ( ε 0 − 1 μ 0 ) E e l 0 e 4 8 h 2 1 n 2 (12)

We should also underscore that the dependence of discrete energy levels on inverse n^{2} implies phase dependent propagation behavior of electrons in the atomic orbits, which is mathematically well captured by Schrodinger’s wave equation.

We have underscored in section 4.2.1 is that wave-particle duality is a reality of nature because particles are localized IP-CL EM waves. Schrodinger’s QM equation represents a logically self-consistent causal relation. There cannot be sudden emergence of non-causal and non-local phenomena only when we carefully set up experiments to measure Superposition Effects (SE). Let us first underscore that the linear Superposition Principle (SP), Ψ = ψ 1 + ψ 2 , is not an observable phenomenon; Here the operator “+” implies only coexistence, not any interaction. In contrast, SE is an observable phenomenon. We need an appropriate quantum detector that can execute the quantum mechanical square modulus operation on both the superposed signals, | Ψ | 2 = | χ ψ 1 + χ ψ 2 | 2 , where χ is the linear dipolar polarizability of the detecting molecules that guides the interaction process between the detector and the stimulating signal. SE can becomes observable only after non-linear quadratic operation process has been executed by a detector through absorption of energy from all the stimulating fields, ψ 1 and ψ 2 , present simultaneously. We must not defy these mathematical logics that have been working just by repeating the culturally accepted belief that “indivisible single photon interfere”. Further, the detecting molecules must be resonant to the incident signal frequency. Just by sending any signals (“photons”) do not automatically create observable distribution of the sent signals. Further, the signals sent out, follow their own laws of propagation. EM waves diffractively spread out and particles follow linear trajectory in force-free region. IP-CL particles do not diffract like the Maxwellian waves do. Therefore, the expression for SP below (Equation (13)) is just a causal mathematical expression that we are sending two streams of signal through two slits on to a distant detector array that can interact with the particles on arrival. The “+” operator in the equation does not represent any particle-particle interaction.

p ( τ ) = a 1 e i 2 π f k ( t + τ ) + a 2 e i 2 π f k t (13)

It is simply a mathematically correct statement that we are intending to send two streams of particles, starting out of, say, through two slits on to a “far-field” detector array. Their arrival from the two spatially separate slits on to any specific off-axis point on the detector array will require traveling by different paths, while taking different travel times, assuming they have been pre-selected for the same velocity ( 1 / 2 ) m v 2 = h f k . See section 4.2.1 for the definition of de Broglie frequency f k that replaces de Broglie Pilot wavelength λ k . The detectable (observable) energy distribution would be given by Equation (14):

Ψ ( τ ) = | χ a 1 e i 2 π f k ( t + τ ) + χ a 2 e i 2 π f k t | 2 = χ 2 [ a 1 2 + a 2 2 + 2 a 1 a 2 cos 2 π f k τ ] (14)

Now the operation “+” within the square modulus sign is executed by the detecting elements via the interaction parameter χ . It is almost impossible for us to send exactly identical number of particles through both the slits with identical release times to make a 1 2 = a 2 2 = a 2 and generate pure cosine fringes with unit visibility, which is routinely assumed in making arguments in support of the magical “single particle” SE. The causally correct mathematical logics embedded in Equation (13) representing the detected “fringe intensity” (or particles number) variations defies the interpretation that a single particle can generate SE. The mathematical logic behind the presence of the product a 1 a 2 in the interference cross-term implies that the detector accepts energy from both the particle beams (the literal meaning of “superposition”). We rely on the hard causality, built into our mathematics, to advance exploration of physics. Locality of superposition effect is dictated by the interaction process executed by the detectors [

We know that all “material” particles and their assembly display gravitational attractive forces, as has been modeled by Newton as a simple inverse square law and by Einsteinian through more complex formalism as “curvature of space” (General Relativity). We also know that inertial property of a particle with Newtonian inertia (mass) can be expressed in terms of the particle’s IP-CL energy and ether properties (Equation (15)):

m 0 = E 0 / c 0 2 = ( h f c l ) ( μ 0 / ε 0 − 1 ) (15)

By definition, Newtonian mass display “gravitational curvature” around it as in Equation (16). Below, we have presented the macro mass as a summation of innumerable IP-CL oscillators of quantum frequencies f i n ( 1 , n ) . The issue to notice is that the mutual gravitational force between two massive bodies is inversely proportional to both the square of the distance and the square of the electric tension of the ether (Equation (16)).

F = G m 1 m 2 r 2 = G h 2 r 2 ( ∑ n f c l ( 1 , n ) ⋅ ∑ n f c l ( 2 , n ) ) ( μ 0 / ε 0 − 1 ) 2 (16)

If the IP-CL wavelet concept for particles is correct, then the correct mathematical closed-looped light propagation model should be able to generate the gravitational force, or create the “curvature of space” (potential gradient) on the ether field. The strength of the “Curvatures of space” increases with the “closed- looped” frequencies (energies) of the particles and is directly sum-able to generate larger and larger gravitational attraction without the need for any phase terms, unlike for interactions between quantum particles or EM waves and particles. We do not need a separate theory of Quantum Gravity that can generate graviton for interaction through “exchange process”.

Here, we would like to introduce, without further discussions in the current paper, the postulate that all forces in nature are due to diverse kinds of curvatures in ether generated by the IP-CL EM wavelets, without requiring the concept of exchange particles. We should note that interactions between diverse IP-CL wavelets will naturally go through transient intermediate “photon-like” states as they transition from one stable IP-CL wavelet to assume another stable IP-CL structure, like for example, e − + e + ⇌ γ + γ . Thus, Feynman’s integral technique that utilizes intermediate photons or Bosons, represent more than just a mathematical trick that just works! The method closely represents actual interaction processes going on in nature. That is why Feynman-diagrams are so successful [

There are many publications where the authors have claimed that gravity has electromagnetic origin [

Ω ˙ = 8 2 G ρ a c 0 3 = 8 2 G ρ a ( ε 0 − 1 / μ 0 ) 3 / 2 (17)

The induced weak gravitational precession for a macro ring laser is very small, being inversely proportional to a c 0 3 = a ( ε 0 − 1 / μ 0 ) 3 / 2 . Nonetheless, if a macro linear ring laser can induce inertial frame dragging on a massive particle; it is then inspiring to attempt to model a femto meter size complex IP-CL 3D wavelet model that could generate the actually measured gravitational field strength.

We have defined cosmic ether very much as a “classical” continuous 3D tension field with core properties being electric tension and magnetic resistance. Everything observable or manifest, consists of perpetually propagating EM waves—freely propagating EM waves and localized IP-CL EM waves. This perpetual propagation (velocity) is a classical property of all waves generated on a classical tension medium. It originates because the parent tension field 1) wants to preserve its energetic quiescent state by pushing away perturbations, and because 2) it cannot directly assimilate the energies of the waves-generated perturbation. Then the sum total energy in any interaction between different IP-CL wavelets and between IP-CL and EM waves should always be conserved because the new products are also bound to be some form of waves of the ether. This is the well observed law of conservation of energy in all interactions, an inherent property of the energetic tension field. Therefore, the cosmic ether must be holding 100% of the energy of the observable universe, which includes the energy of all the EM oscillations [

Current cosmological theories imply that of the total energy density of the universe, Baryonic matter represent only ~5% , dark matter and dark energy supposed to consist of ~25% and ~70 %, respectively [

Mannheim’s work [

v T o t 2 R → [ N ∗ β ∗ c 0 2 R 2 + N ∗ γ ∗ c 0 2 2 + γ 0 c 0 2 2 − κ c 0 2 R ] (18)

Let us re-write Equation (18) in terms of the key primary tension parameters of ether, using c 0 2 = ε 0 − 1 / μ 0 , to underscore that the origin of gravitational “curvatures of space” emerges out of electromagnetic ether.

v T o t 2 R → [ ε 0 − 1 μ 0 ] [ N ∗ β ∗ R 2 + N ∗ γ ∗ 2 + γ 0 2 − κ R ] (19)

Stationary ether model also contradicts Cosmological Redshift [

Further, the physical processes behind the emergence of Doppler Effect does not corroborate the conditions actually exists. The so called Doppler shifted spectral “Dark Lines” represent the absence of any physical signal. So dark lines

cannot experience Doppler Effect [

Let us now account for the physical conditions behind the “frequency shifted” dark lines. First, the white light, emanating out from inside the star, must pick up the spectral dark line signatures due to the quantum mechanical resonance absorptions by atoms and molecules of the outer layers. Then, the emergent white light with dark lines imprinted on it, propagates through the intervening cosmic space, before reaching us. Therefore, the frequency shift of the dark line can happenonly while the entire white light spectrum undergoes redshift during its travel through the galactic space before reaching us. The physical processes that create this Cosmological Redshift must be some physical property of the intervening ether whose properties have been modified due to the presence of various gravitational curvatures by the innumerable galaxies, or due to the presence of thin cosmic gases and charges, etc., etc. This is why Hubble Redshift is an energy dissipation dependent phenomenon, not a Doppler Effect. Therefore, our ether model of the universe is not expanding.

This also implies that the introduction of the cosmological constant by Einstein in his General Relativity was not necessary, because he assumed the correctness of the expanding-universe interpretation of the observed distance-dependent Cosmological Redshift, as Doppler Effect—as if, all galaxies are receding from each other.

Einstein’s first postulate is essentially built into our model of stationary ether; a separate postulate is not necessary. However, there are some qualifications and limitations. The velocity of all EM waves in all material free regions is automatically the same, c 0 2 = ε 0 − 1 / μ 0 . We also have defined the cosmic ether as the stationary (inertial) reference frame for the entire observable universe. It is the only universal inertial reference frame for us. Planets, on which human-like species can carry out experiments, strictly speaking, are not truly inertial rest frames. They are continuously executing diverse complex motions: axial rotations, elliptical orbital motions and their parental stars’ galactic motions (rotations and translation). However, we must note that for material media, sufficiently dense galactic gas clouds, corona of stars, planetary atmosphere, bulk material media on planets, all have different effective and reduced tension field strength (higher refractive index) and also have dispersive frequency-dependent velocities, c m e d . 2 ( ν ) = c 0 2 / n m e d . 2 ( ν ) . In these media, the velocities of EM waves are different. Further, if any of these media are in relative motion with respect to the stationary ether, then the velocity suffers from Fresnel Drag [

We have already underscored that our universe, emergent in the stationary ether, is the only inertial reference frame. The only observables are propagating EM waves and localized IP-CL EM waves. They all are different kinds of excited states of the same cosmic ether. They naturally must follow the same rules on planets in any star, in any galaxy, in the entire observable universe. Therefore, the 2nd postulate is also naturally built into our model for the cosmic ether. We do not need to postulate it separately.

Further, the atoms and the molecules, being assemblies of resonant oscillations of the same cosmic ether (IP-CL modes), they naturally would obey and display the same quantum mechanical behavior in all the stars, in all the galaxies. This is also the obvious reason why the theories, well-validated by experiments on earth, also corroborate the properties of atoms and molecules in distant stars and their planets. We should further note that the empty space between the atoms, and also within the atoms, is the same stationary Cosmic Ether, whether they are in the corona of a star, or in a discharge tube on earth. Clearly, a separate SR theory in Physics is not of critical importance just to appreciate the universality of the laws of physics, as originally articulated by SR, which did not explicitly recognize ether as the stationary energetic tension field.

Recall that we have underscored in the introduction the importance of “interaction process” and “primary actionable parameter” in modeling natural phenomena, because nature is persistently evolving through diverse interaction processes where the interaction parameters usually define the strength of interactions. The running time, “t” does not fit into either of this characteristic. So, it does not make operational sense to assign running time “t” as the fourth dimension of nature (the universe), having equal footing with the 3D space. The running time “t” is an ingenious invention of human culture. We cannot lead our lives without it.

Let us examine how we measure the running time. We use a standard physical oscillator that has a characteristic natural (resonant) frequency, f. Then we invert this frequency into a “period”, “dt” = “1/f”. Then we keep counting larger and larger number of periods to get a semblance of running time “t”. It is not an action guiding parameter of nature. Life times of radio-active elements and unstable particles do represent various physical time intervals as time periods. So, the running time can be expressed as different multiples of their respective “life-times”. So, the running time “t” should be kept as a mathematically convenient parameter to keep track of evolution of natural phenomenon, however, without assigning it the status of a primary action parameter of nature. We should note that, frequency being a primary physical parameter of a physical oscillator, it can be “dilated” and “contracted” by applying appropriate changes in its immediate vicinity that can alter the physical parameter that influences the resonance frequency of an oscillator. Therefore, the universe should not be arbitrarily defined as physically four or multidimensional.

Galileo and Newton ushered in the golden days of physics-thinking by elevating the need to validate the reproducible experimental data after constructing mathematical theories that can explain the operational functions behind the emergence of natural phenomena. After several centuries of outstanding and rapid progress, physics has now become a bit moribund [

We have already underscored in the introduction that we consider nature as a creative, but logical and causality-driven system engineer. Hence, we need to focus our attention to visualize the invisible interaction processes in nature to understand the realities of nature. This is akin to evolution process congruent thinking ( [

Over the last few decades, many papers and books have been published [_{0}, in its fundamental constituent oscillators. Observable nature is physically real in the sense that the orderly universe has been existing for over a very long period of time, still undetermined; whereas humans have started modeling nature using modern mathematics starting barely some 600 years back. It was Galileo and Newton who successfully demonstrated that mathematics contain deeply logical properties and since then it has turned out to be an invaluable tool to explore nature. However, logics built into mathematics, irrespective of their beauty and harmony, cannot directly define and/or articulate the physical interaction processes hidden behind the causal interaction processes, which nature is executing. That has to be interpreted and articulated by the variable and the subjective, albeit “logical”, human minds, and constrained by the mathematical logics and the experimental data. Therefore, the prevailing evidence based science, led by mathematics and validated by experiments, is in-sufficient for our continual progress to keep exploring nature’s reality.

Our universe is a constantly recycling system. This is evident from the system engineering marvels of creation and destruction of macro galaxies made out of stars and planets, while recycling the same atoms, built out of the elementary particles. And all of which are continuously recycling as “excited states” of the common unchanging platform of the energetic tension field, the ether. Nature is not a speculative philosopher, even though to step out of our beginning ignorance about the laws of nature, we must start by being philosophic. Nature is not driven by pure mathematics-type of logics either; even though human invented mathematical logics have been one of the major success tools to help us explore and advance our understandings of nature.

Consider the case of laser modes. Stable fundamental laser modes are mathematically expressed as spatially Gaussian with tails extending to infinity. How can an infinite-tailed laser mode be generated out of spatially-finite laser cavities (gain media)? “Successful” mathematical logics could even lead us to draw wrong conclusions regarding the cause behind an emergent phenomenon while generating correct prediction. Clearly human invented mathematical logics and cosmic logics are not identical. The “evidence based science”, a combination of our mathematical theories and experimental validations, have been, so far, our major guiding tools towards our advancements. However, the evidence based science is not enough. We should also note that our scientific exploration of the laws of nature has started with essentially complete ignorance. Our conclusion about the experimental data, generated through interaction between different chosen entities, can never be completely conclusive simply because we do not know completely any of the interacting entities within our experimental apparatus. We still do not completely understand what electrons and photons are made of. Therefore, no finite set of experiments can succeeded in finding the complete set of properties of any natural entity as yet. This has been mathematically articulated by Gödel’s in his Incompleteness Theorem [

Human biological evolution started acceleration with the invention of creating controlled fire on-demand by quick rubbing of dried wood pieces, or by striking a pair of stones. Anthropologists believe that this had happened several hundred thousand years ago, if not even much earlier. The multi-step physical processes behind these innovations involve, first, transferring the biological muscular energy of hands as the kinetic (or thermal) energies on to the molecules and atoms of the wood or the stone pieces. Then this classical kinetic energy triggers the quantum mechanical processes of ionizing a large number of atoms and molecules. After that, the second set of quantum processes kicks in. The free electrons from the surrounding air start neutralizing the ionized atoms and molecules, while releasing a wide range of EM radiations - heat, visible and UV. This momentous innovation was achieved by multiple human tribes in different geographic locations through their trial-and-error approach. The pressure for this innovation was triggered by the evolutionary desire to live better compared to the then existing best conditions they had. They did not have any clue about physics or chemistry; they did not have any mathematics, and not even advanced languages. However, the human thinking, driven by the wisdom of trying to emulate the physical processes taking place in nature through trial and error, has set the humans in the right direction to unravel the mysteries of the universe, while enjoying the biological lives and the beauty as a byproduct of nature. We are here today because of our very ancient forefathers were wise engineers with very innovative minds.

The field of modern physics has demonstrated a rather remarkable set of advancements, especially, over the last six hundred years. We have now ushered in the Knowledge Age by installing the global Internet System, while mastering the technologies behind light management. However, our dominant thinking has remained frozen to the foundational postulates behind the four distinctly different physics-thinking (epistemologies)—Classical Physics, Relativity Physics, Quantum Physics and Cosmological Physics. But, we know that the universe is one continuum. Therefore, we need to add the Interaction Process Mapping Epistemology (IPM-E), over and above our currently successful approach of using Measurable Data Modeling Epistemology (MDM-E) [

We have to keep on iteratively re-structuring the basic set of postulates behind all of our separate theories as a single set of coherent and harmonious postulates. This paper is an attempt in this direction. It has logically demonstrated that the old ether is, most likely, the best unifying field for us. We ourselves are just bundles of oscillating, or dancing, excited states of ether!

The author declares no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.

Roychoudhuri, C. (2021) Cosmic Ether, Possessing Electric-Tension and Magnetic-Resistance, Is the Unified Field for Physics. Journal of Modern Physics, 12, 671-699. https://doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2021.125044