JAMPJournal of Applied Mathematics and Physics2327-4352Scientific Research Publishing10.4236/jamp.2021.93033JAMP-108056ArticlesPhysics&Mathematics Multiple Debye Spherical Layers and Universe —Gravitation Originates from Electric Force DelongChi1Beijing Solar Terrestrial Space Weather Institute, Beijing, China08032021090347748316, November 202026, March 2021 29, March 2021© Copyright 2014 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc. 2014This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Electric field superposition principle and Gauss’s law are the basis of electrostatics. By extended analysis on the electric field lines of a charge, it is shown that electric field superposition principle and Gauss’s law are not tenable in some states, involving the electric field of ion atmosphere that is a key concept in Debye-Hückel theory of electrolyte solution and plasma. Unveiling Debye shield, ion atmosphere (Debye spherical layer 1) actually is equivalent to continue to transmit the electric field originated from the central ion, just changing the direction of the electric field. Debye spherical layer 2 and multiple Debye spherical layers generate in the transmission. Due to the effect of the multiple Debye spherical layers of charged particles in the universe, gravitation originates from electric force.

Electric Field Superposition Principle Gauss’s Law Ion Atmosphere Mul-tiple Debye Spherical Layers
1. Introduction

Electric field superposition principle and Gauss’s law are the basis of electrostatics  . Electric field lines help us visualize the direction and magnitude of electric fields .

By extended analysis on the electric field lines of a charge, it is shown that electric field superposition principle and Gauss’s law are not tenable in some states, involving the electric field of ion atmosphere. Ion atmosphere is a key concept in Debye-Hückel theory of electrolyte solution and plasma   . The external electric field of the ion atmosphere (Debye spherical layer 1) is equivalent to a point charge at the position of the central ion, carrying equal charge and sign opposite to the central ion. It results in the formation of multiple Debye spherical layers outside the central ion. Suppose that arbitrary objects and vacuum in the universe are made up of charged particles, due to the effect of the multiple Debye spherical layers of charged particles, gravitation originates from electric force.

2. Extended Analysis on Electric Field Lines of the Intrinsic Electric Field of a Charge

Up to now, Key ideas of electric field lines in electrostatics are the following.

A charged particle sets up an electric field (a vector quantity) in the surrounding space. Electric field lines help us visualize the direction and magnitude of electric fields. The electric field vector at any point is tangent to the field line through that point. The density of field lines in that region is proportional to the magnitude of the electric field there. Thus, closer field lines represent a stronger field. Electric field lines originate on positive charges and terminate on negative charges. So, a field line extending from a positive charge must end on a negative charge.

With the help of extended analysis on electric field lines of the intrinsic electric field of a charge, new ideas are shown in “Figure 1”. There are some components of electric field of a charge not involving the electric field superposition in “Figure 1(C)”. It leads Gauss’ law not to hold in some states, shown in “Figure 1(E) and Figure 1(F)”.

3. The State that Gauss Law does not Hold

Put the point negative charge Q2 in “Figure 1(C)” become a non conductive spherical surface of radius R with uniform negative charge with same magnitude “Figure 1(E)”; change the positive point charge Q1 into a non-conductive spherical surface of radius r (r < R) with uniform positive charge with same magnitude “Figure 1(F)”. According to the basic state of the electric field lines shown in “Figures 1(A)-(C)”, draw the electric field lines in “Figure 1(E) and Figure 1(F)”.

In “Figure 1(E) and Figure 1(F)”, draw an arbitrary closed surface(S) outside the spherical surface of radius R, since Q int = ∑ i n s i d e   S q i = 0 , but ∮ S E → · d S → ≠ 0 , hence Gauss’s law doesn’t hold here (Gauss’s law ϕ E = ∮ S E → · d S → = Q int ε 0 , Q int = ∑ i n s i d e   S q i , ε 0 is permittivity of free space).

4. Unveiling Debye Shield

In Debye-Hückel theory, the central ion j of charged −zje and a spherical ion atmosphere of charged −zje form an electrically neutral state, and the ion atmosphere is equivalent to a spherical shell of charged −zje “Figure 2(A)” , ion atmosphere shields the external electric field of the central ion  .

In the following, ion atmosphere is called Debye spherical layer or Debye spherical layer 1.

According to “Figure 2(A)”, draw electric field lines of Debye spherical layer- equivalent charged shell (notice it is a non-conductive shell) and central ion “Figure 2(B)”, show that the Debye spherical layer has an external electric field.

Debye spherical layer (Debye spherical layer 1) is equivalent to a point negative charge with same magnitude as the center ion at the position of the center ion. The external electric field of Debye spherical layer 1 causes Debye spherical layer 2 to generate, Debye spherical layer 2 is equivalent to a point positive charge with same magnitude as the center ion at the position of the center ion; the external electric field of Debye spherical layer 2 causes Debye spherical layer 3 to generate “Figure 3(A)” …

The external electric field of Debye spherical layer n causes Debye spherical layer n + 1 to generate, R n + 1 > R n (n is a natural number, Rn is the radius of Debye spherical layer n), Multiple Debye spherical layers generate “Figure 3(B)”. There may be infinite Debye spherical layers outside the central ion, as long as the space of electrolyte solution or plasma is large enough.

The field lines can show, if ignore changes of electric field direction, the electric field originated from the central ion in the multiple Debye spherical layers is equal to the electric field due to the central ion alone, comparing with “Figure 1(A)”.

Every ion plays the role of the central ion of multiple Debye spherical layers, also plays the role of the member of multiple Debye spherical layers of other ions. Ion p is in Ln (Debye spherical layer n due to the central ion j), the central ion j is also in Lk (Debye spherical layer k due to ion p) “Figure 3(C)”.

5. Discussion and Summary

1) The ion atmosphere, i.e. Debye spherical layer, i.e. Debye spherical layer 1, does not shield the electric field of the central ion, just cunningly reversing the direction of the electric field, continuing to transit the electric field originated from the central ion, and causing multiple Debye spherical layers to generate.

2) The absolute value of the electric field originated from the central ion in the multiple Debye spherical layers is equal to the absolute value of electric field due to the central ion alone | E | = | Q j | 4 π R 2 , here | Q j | is the absolute value of the magnitude of charge of the central ion, R is a distance from the central ion j.

3) Debye spherical layer n + 1 and Debye spherical layer n carry equal and opposite charges. They are of same magnitude as the central ion j.

4) Since Debye spherical layer 1 and the central ion j carry equal and opposite charges, there is an electric attraction between the central ion j and Debye spherical layer 1. In the same way, there is also electric attraction between arbitrary two adjacent layers (layer n, layer n + 1) in multiple Debye spherical layers, Then the central ion j can attract any Debye spherical layer due to the central ion j. The attraction intensity of the central ion j to any layer is proportional to | Q j | 4 π R 2 .

5) Due to the attraction of the central ion j to any Debye spherical layer, for an arbitrary ion p in one Debye spherical layer, ion p as one member of the layer, there must be an indirect attraction of the central ion j to ion p, no matter the charge sign of ion p. The indirect attraction intensity of the central ion j to ion p is proportional to the attraction intensity of the central ion j to the layer. Since the distance between the central ion j and the layer that involves ion p is approximate to the distance between j and p, the indirect attraction intensity F j ← p of the central ion j to ion p is approximately proportional to | Q j | 4 π R 2 , here R is a distance between j and p, i.e. F j ← p = | Q j | 4 π R 2 .

6) Ion p is in Ln (Debye spherical layer n due to the central ion j), the central ion j is also in Lk (Debye spherical layer k due to ion p). The indirect attraction intensity F p ← j of ion p to the central ion j is approximately proportional to | Q p | 4 π R 2 , here Q p is the magnitude of charge of ion p, R is a distance between j and p, i.e. F p ← j = | Q p | 4 π R 2 .

7) Due to 5 and 6, the total indirect attraction intensity F i n d i r e c t = F j ← p p ← j between ion j and p, is approximately proportional to | Q j | 4 π R 2 and | Q p | 4 π R 2 , F i n d i r e c t is approximately proportional to | Q i | | Q p | 4 π R 2 . Reduce the precision, F i n d i r e c t is right proportional to | Q i | | Q p | 4 π R 2 , i.e. F i n d i r e c t = F j ← p p ← j = H | Q i | | Q p | R 2 , H is a proportional constant. Comparing the indirect attraction intensity F i n d i r e c t = H | Q i | | Q p | R 2 with Coulomb’s force F C = k | Q i | | Q p | R 2 , k = 8.99 × 10 9 N ⋅ m 2 / C 2 , in Coulomb’s force, when the charges are the same sign, the force is repulsive, when the charges are opposite signs, the force is attractive; in the indirect attraction intensity F i n d i r e c t = H | Q i | | Q p | R 2 , no matter the charges are the same sign or opposite signs, the force is always attractive.

8) Suppose that an arbitrary object and vacuum in the universe are all made up of charged particles, comparing a volume charge density defined by ρ e = lim Δ V → 0 ∑ i n s i d e   Δ V Q i Δ V , a volume density of charge absolute is defined by ρ | e | = lim Δ V → 0 ∑ i n s i d e   Δ V | Q i | Δ V , ρ | e | of vacuum is the smaller than that of an arbitrary object, but ρ | e | ≠ 0 everywhere.

Due to the effect of multiple Debye spherical layers of charged particles in the universe, for two arbitrary objects A and B, there is an indirect attraction between A and B, and its intensity F i n d i r e c t = H ∑ i n s i d e   V A | Q i | ∑ i n s i d e   V B | Q j | R 2 , ∑ i n s i d e   V A | Q i | is the sum of the absolute value of charge magnitude of each charged particle in the space occupied by the object A, ∑ i n s i d e   V A | Q j | is the sum of the absolute value of charge magnitude of each charged particle in the space occupied by the object B.

Comparing the indirect attraction intensity F i n d i r e c t = H ∑ i n s i d e   V A | Q i | ∑ i n s i d e   V B | Q j | R 2 with Newton’s universal gravitation F = G m A m B R 2 , G is gravitational constant, G = 6.674 × 10 − 11 N ⋅ m 2 / kg 2 , m A , m B is the mass of A and B respectively, then m A = ∑ i n s i d e   V A | Q i | , m B = ∑ i n s i d e   V B | Q j | , H = G or H = φ G , φ is a constant.

Acknowledgements

Special thanks to Professor Biping Gong, Professor Xiaotian Li, Professor Hefa Lv, My Assistant Jingsen Wu and all who supported me. Last but not least, I would like to give special thanks to Michael Faraday who invented the electric field line.

Conflicts of Interest

The author declares no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.

Cite this paper

Chi, D.L. (2021) Multiple Debye Spherical Layers and Universe. Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, 9, 477-483. https://doi.org/10.4236/jamp.2021.93033

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