_{1}

Electric field superposition principle and Gauss’s law are the basis of electrostatics. By extended analysis on the electric field lines of a charge, it is shown that electric field superposition principle and Gauss’s law are not tenable in some states, involving the electric field of ion atmosphere that is a key concept in Debye-Hückel theory of electrolyte solution and plasma. Unveiling Debye shield, ion atmosphere (Debye spherical layer 1) actually is equivalent to continue to transmit the electric field originated from the central ion, just changing the direction of the electric field. Debye spherical layer 2 and multiple Debye spherical layers generate in the transmission. Due to the effect of the multiple Debye spherical layers of charged particles in the universe, gravitation originates from electric force.

Electric field superposition principle and Gauss’s law are the basis of electrostatics [

By extended analysis on the electric field lines of a charge, it is shown that electric field superposition principle and Gauss’s law are not tenable in some states, involving the electric field of ion atmosphere. Ion atmosphere is a key concept in Debye-Hückel theory of electrolyte solution and plasma [

Up to now, Key ideas of electric field lines in electrostatics are the following.

A charged particle sets up an electric field (a vector quantity) in the surrounding space. Electric field lines help us visualize the direction and magnitude of electric fields. The electric field vector at any point is tangent to the field line through that point. The density of field lines in that region is proportional to the magnitude of the electric field there. Thus, closer field lines represent a stronger field. Electric field lines originate on positive charges and terminate on negative charges. So, a field line extending from a positive charge must end on a negative charge.

With the help of extended analysis on electric field lines of the intrinsic electric field of a charge, new ideas are shown in “

Put the point negative charge Q_{2} in “_{1} into a non-conductive spherical surface of radius r (r < R) with uniform positive charge with same magnitude “

In “

In Debye-Hückel theory, the central ion j of charged −z_{j}e and a spherical ion atmosphere of charged −z_{j}e form an electrically neutral state, and the ion atmosphere is equivalent to a spherical shell of charged −z_{j}e “

In the following, ion atmosphere is called Debye spherical layer or Debye spherical layer 1.

According to “

Debye spherical layer (Debye spherical layer 1) is equivalent to a point negative charge with same magnitude as the center ion at the position of the center ion. The external electric field of Debye spherical layer 1 causes Debye spherical layer 2 to generate, Debye spherical layer 2 is equivalent to a point positive charge with same magnitude as the center ion at the position of the center ion; the external electric field of Debye spherical layer 2 causes Debye spherical layer 3 to generate “

The external electric field of Debye spherical layer n causes Debye spherical layer n + 1 to generate, R n + 1 > R n (n is a natural number, R_{n} is the radius of Debye spherical layer n), Multiple Debye spherical layers generate “

The field lines can show, if ignore changes of electric field direction, the electric field originated from the central ion in the multiple Debye spherical layers is equal to the electric field due to the central ion alone, comparing with “

Every ion plays the role of the central ion of multiple Debye spherical layers, also plays the role of the member of multiple Debye spherical layers of other ions. Ion p is in L_{n} (Debye spherical layer n due to the central ion j), the central ion j is also in L_{k} (Debye spherical layer k due to ion p) “

1) The ion atmosphere, i.e. Debye spherical layer, i.e. Debye spherical layer 1, does not shield the electric field of the central ion, just cunningly reversing the direction of the electric field, continuing to transit the electric field originated from the central ion, and causing multiple Debye spherical layers to generate.

2) The absolute value of the electric field originated from the central ion in the multiple Debye spherical layers is equal to the absolute value of electric field due to the central ion alone | E | = | Q j | 4 π R 2 , here | Q j | is the absolute value of the magnitude of charge of the central ion, R is a distance from the central ion j.

3) Debye spherical layer n + 1 and Debye spherical layer n carry equal and opposite charges. They are of same magnitude as the central ion j.

4) Since Debye spherical layer 1 and the central ion j carry equal and opposite charges, there is an electric attraction between the central ion j and Debye spherical layer 1. In the same way, there is also electric attraction between arbitrary two adjacent layers (layer n, layer n + 1) in multiple Debye spherical layers, Then the central ion j can attract any Debye spherical layer due to the central ion j. The attraction intensity of the central ion j to any layer is proportional to | Q j | 4 π R 2 .

5) Due to the attraction of the central ion j to any Debye spherical layer, for an arbitrary ion p in one Debye spherical layer, ion p as one member of the layer, there must be an indirect attraction of the central ion j to ion p, no matter the charge sign of ion p. The indirect attraction intensity of the central ion j to ion p is proportional to the attraction intensity of the central ion j to the layer. Since the distance between the central ion j and the layer that involves ion p is approximate to the distance between j and p, the indirect attraction intensity F j ← p of the central ion j to ion p is approximately proportional to | Q j | 4 π R 2 , here R is a distance between j and p, i.e. F j ← p = | Q j | 4 π R 2 .

6) Ion p is in L_{n} (Debye spherical layer n due to the central ion j), the central ion j is also in L_{k} (Debye spherical layer k due to ion p). The indirect attraction intensity F p ← j of ion p to the central ion j is approximately proportional to | Q p | 4 π R 2 , here Q p is the magnitude of charge of ion p, R is a distance between j and p, i.e. F p ← j = | Q p | 4 π R 2 .

7) Due to 5 and 6, the total indirect attraction intensity F i n d i r e c t = F j ← p p ← j between ion j and p, is approximately proportional to | Q j | 4 π R 2 and | Q p | 4 π R 2 , F i n d i r e c t is approximately proportional to | Q i | | Q p | 4 π R 2 . Reduce the precision, F i n d i r e c t is right proportional to | Q i | | Q p | 4 π R 2 , i.e. F i n d i r e c t = F j ← p p ← j = H | Q i | | Q p | R 2 , H is a proportional constant. Comparing the indirect attraction intensity F i n d i r e c t = H | Q i | | Q p | R 2 with Coulomb’s force F C = k | Q i | | Q p | R 2 , k = 8.99 × 10 9 N ⋅ m 2 / C 2 [

8) Suppose that an arbitrary object and vacuum in the universe are all made up of charged particles, comparing a volume charge density defined by ρ e = lim Δ V → 0 ∑ i n s i d e Δ V Q i Δ V , a volume density of charge absolute is defined by ρ | e | = lim Δ V → 0 ∑ i n s i d e Δ V | Q i | Δ V , ρ | e | of vacuum is the smaller than that of an arbitrary object, but ρ | e | ≠ 0 everywhere.

Due to the effect of multiple Debye spherical layers of charged particles in the universe, for two arbitrary objects A and B, there is an indirect attraction between A and B, and its intensity F i n d i r e c t = H ∑ i n s i d e V A | Q i | ∑ i n s i d e V B | Q j | R 2 , ∑ i n s i d e V A | Q i | is the sum of the absolute value of charge magnitude of each charged particle in the space occupied by the object A, ∑ i n s i d e V A | Q j | is the sum of the absolute value of charge magnitude of each charged particle in the space occupied by the object B.

Comparing the indirect attraction intensity F i n d i r e c t = H ∑ i n s i d e V A | Q i | ∑ i n s i d e V B | Q j | R 2 with Newton’s universal gravitation F = G m A m B R 2 , G is gravitational constant, G = 6.674 × 10 − 11 N ⋅ m 2 / kg 2 , m A , m B is the mass of A and B respectively, then m A = ∑ i n s i d e V A | Q i | , m B = ∑ i n s i d e V B | Q j | , H = G or H = φ G , φ is a constant.

Special thanks to Professor Biping Gong, Professor Xiaotian Li, Professor Hefa Lv, My Assistant Jingsen Wu and all who supported me. Last but not least, I would like to give special thanks to Michael Faraday who invented the electric field line.

The author declares no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.

Chi, D.L. (2021) Multiple Debye Spherical Layers and Universe. Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, 9, 477-483. https://doi.org/10.4236/jamp.2021.93033