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A single diode model for a photovoltaic solar module is the most ideal and quick way of analyzing the module characteristics before implementing them in a solar plant. Solar modules manufacturers provide information for three critical points that are essential in I-V, P-V or P-I curves. In this study, we propose four separate simulation procedures to estimate the five-model parameters of an analogous single diode equivalent circuit by utilizing three cardinal points of the photovoltaic module I-V curve, described from experimental data using a solar simulator and manufacturer’s datasheet. The main objective is to extract and use the five unknown parameters of a single diode model to describe the photovoltaic system using I-V ad P-V plots under different environmental conditions. The most influential parameters that greatly alter the cardinal points defined at short circuit point (SCP), the maximum power point (MPP) and the open circuit point(OCP) are the ideality factor (
n
) and the diode saturation current (
I<sub>o</sub>
). For a quick and fast convergence, we have determined the optimal ideality factor (
n<sub>o</sub>
) and optimal saturation current (
I<sub>oopt</sub>
) as the primary parameters by first assuming the optimal values of
R<sub>sh</sub>
,
R<sub>s</sub>
and
I<sub>ph</sub>
at standard test conditions (STC). Further, we evaluated the effects of
I<sub>ph</sub>
,
R<sub>s</sub>
and
R<sub>sh</sub>
on I-V and P-V curves by considering the values of
n
below
n_{o}
. We have evaluated different iterative procedures of determining
R<sub>sh</sub>
and
R<sub>s</sub>
at open-circuit, short-circuit point and the maximum-power points. These procedures have been classified into four approaches that guarantees positive shunt and series resistance for
n
≤
n<sub>o</sub>
. These approaches have been categorized by deriving the saturation current as a dependent variable at each cardinal point with or without
R<sub>s</sub>
and
R<sub>sh</sub>
pair. The values obtained for the five parameters have been used to simulate the photovoltaic solar module characteristic curves with great precision at different air temperatures and irradiances, considering the effect of Nominal Operating Cell Temperature (NOCT).

Harvesting of renewable solar energy has grown rapidly over the past decade due to the availability of cheap and affordable modules and deep-cycle energy storage systems [

A single diode model of a solar system has been studied for decades since it offers an elaborate, simple and reliable analysis of the current-voltage characteristics of solar cells [_{ph}, I_{o}, n, R_{s} and R_{sh} parameters that are based on the equivalent circuit analysis using Schottky’s diode equation [

Several techniques based on soft computing have been studied for unknown parameters determination using evolutionary algorithms [

Analytical and numerical methods are the traditional techniques for estimating all parameters of a single diode photovoltaic model [_{sc}), maximum power point voltage (V_{mpp}), maximum power point current (I_{mpp}), open-circuit voltage (V_{oc}) and IV-curve intersection slopes [_{sc}, V_{oc}, I_{mpp}, V_{mpp} to determine the photovoltaic parameters using nonlinear least square (NLS) algorithm [_{sc}, V_{oc}, I_{mpp} and V_{mpp} are approximated to one or two decimal places while P_{mpp} values are given in the nearest tenth for all modules with the same power rating. However, each solar module has its individual values for each of these points at STC [_{o}), photocurrent (I_{ph}), series (R_{s}) and shunt (R_{sh}) resistances for a single diode photovoltaic model. The analytical approach gives a straightforward, simple and rapid way of extracting ideality factor and saturation current by approximating their optimum values using three critical points from either the data sheet and/or the experimental data. The numerical approach gives the precise values of the ideality factor and saturation current in the proximity of optimal ideality factor (n_{o}) and optimal saturation current (I_{opt}) respectively. Further, series (R_{s}) and shunt (R_{sh}) resistances that are not provided in the manufacturer’s datasheet are determined using iterative algorithms. Finally, the photo current is explicitly determined using the extracted n, I_{o}, R_{s}, R_{sh} and datasheet or experimental values. A comparison of simulated I-V and P-V curves from datasheet and experimental data values is also presented for different environmental conditions.

_{s} and in parallel to the Shockley’s diode [_{sh}.

The equivalent circuit can be presented mathematically by

I = I p h − I o ( exp ( q ( V + I R s ) n K T ) − 1 ) − V + I R s R s h . (1)

where; T = 298.15 K, q is the charge of an electron = 1.602176634 × 10^{−19} C and k is the Boltzmann’s Constant = 1.380649 × 10^{−}^{23} m^{2}∙s^{−2}∙kg∙K^{−1}.

The critical points of I-V and P-V curves for a photovoltaic system are the short circuit (SC), the maximum power point (MPP) and open-circuit (OC). These points play an important role since a quick look at their values gives a clear picture of the photovoltaic module characteristic and performance. We can use Equation (1) and rearrange it at each point as follows:

1) At short circuit, I = I_{sc}, V = 0;

We can rewrite Equation (1) as

I s c = I p h − I o ( exp I s c R s n N s V t − 1 ) − I s c R s R s h . (2)

or

I p h = I s c + I o ( exp I s c R s n N s V t − 1 ) + I s c R s R s h . (3)

where V t = k T / q = 0.025692607 is the thermal voltage.

2) At Open Circuit, I = 0, V = V_{oc};

Equation (1) can be rearranged as

I p h = I o ( exp V o c n N s V t − 1 ) + V o c R s h . (4)

3) At Maximum Power Point, I = I_{mpp}, V = V_{mpp};

We can similarly replace I = I_{mpp}, V = V_{mpp} in equation to obtain

I m p p = I p h − I o ( exp V m p p + I m p p R s n N s V t − 1 ) − V m p p + I m p p R s R s h . (5)

The above equations can be used to evaluate and determine the five unknown parameters using the experimental or manufacturer’s data as discussed in the following sections.

The transcendental Equation (1) has five unknown parameters that must be determined in order to have a model that represents the experimental data. These parameters include photocurrent (I_{ph}), ideality factor (n), saturation current (I_{o}), series (R_{s}) and shunt (R_{sh}) resistances that can be derived using I_{sc}, I_{mpp}, V_{oc} and V_{mpp}.

The following sections 4.1 to 4.3, addresses a detailed mathematical derivation of I_{ph}, I_{o} and n equations, outlining the disadvantages and benefits of each method. Section 4.4 discusses analytical approaches for R_{s} and R_{sh} determination.

The photocurrent (I_{ph}) can be determined from Equations ((2), (3)) or by rewriting Equation (5) as

I p h = I m p p + I o ( exp V m p p + I m p p R s n N s V t − 1 ) + V m p p + I m p p R s R s h . (6)

However, I_{ph} depends on the solar irradiance and module surface temperature (T). Therefore, the relationship between I_{ph}, T and actual irradiance (s_{a}) can be deduced using temperature coefficient of short circuit current (K_{I}) as discussed in [

I p h = s a s S T C [ I p h S T C + K I ( T − T S T C ) ] . (7)

The saturation current can be evaluated using Equation (1) at the three critical points by maintaining constant temperature at the standard test condition, where T_{STC} = 25˚C.

1) At the short circuit, Equation (2) can be rearranged to give

I o = I p h R s h − I s c R s h − I s c R s R s h ( exp ( I s c R s n N s V t ) − 1 ) . (8)

2) At maximum power point, Equation (5) can be reorganized to obtain

I o = I p h R s h − I m p p R s h − V m p p − I m p p R s R s h ( exp ( V m p p + I m p p R s n N s V t ) − 1 ) . (9)

Setting the boundary condition of R_{s} ≈ 0, R_{sh} ≈ ∞ and I_{ph} ≈ I_{sc}, Equation (9) yields

I o = I s c − I m p p exp V m p p n N s V t − 1 . (10)

3) At the open circuit, Equation (4) can be rearranged to give

I o = I p h R s h − V o c R s h ( exp ( V o c n N s V t ) − 1 ) . (11)

Similarly, setting boundary condition of R_{sh} ≈ ∞ and I_{ph} ≈ I_{sc}, Equation (11) yields

I o = I s c exp ( V o c n N s V t ) − 1 . (12)

The saturation current can also be calculated by combining two of either Equations ((3), (4) or (6)). Subtracting Equations ((3) and (4)) eliminates I_{ph} as reported by [

[ I o ] I s c , V o c = I s c R s h + I s c R s − V o c R s h ( exp ( V o c n N s V t ) − exp ( I s c R s n N s V t ) ) . (13)

Once more, taking R_{s} ≈ 0 and R_{sh} ≈ ∞, we can rewrite Equation (13) as

[ I o o p t ] I s c , V o c = I s c exp ( V o c n N s V t ) . (14)

Similarly, Equation (3) can be merged with Equation (6) at I_{sc} and P_{mpp} to obtain

[ I o ] I s c , P m p p = V m p p + I m p p R s h + I m p p R s − I s c R s − I s c R s h R s h ( exp ( I s c R s n N s V t ) − exp ( V m p p + I m p p R s n N s V t ) ) . (15)

Returning to R_{s} ≈ 0 and R_{sh} ≈ ∞, Equation (15) reduces to

[ I o o p t ] I s c , P m p p = I s c − I m p p exp ( V m p p n N s V t ) . (16)

Finally, considering Equations ((4) and (6)) at V_{oc} and P_{mpp}, we can deduce the saturation current as

[ I o ] V o c , P m p p = V m p p − V o c + I m p p R s h + I m p p R s R s h ( exp ( V o c n N s V t ) − exp ( V m p p + I m p p R s n N s V t ) ) . (17)

Again, assuming R_{s} ≈ 0 and R_{sh} ≈ ∞, we can rewrite Equation (17) as

[ I o o p t ] V o c , P m p p = I m p p exp ( V o c n N s V t ) − exp ( V m p p n N s V t ) . (18)

The dark saturation current has been reported to be independent of irradiance and has been regarded as the reverse saturation current which is the reverse current in a solar cell caused by diffusion of minority carriers from the neutral regions to the depletion region in the absence of irradiation [_{g}) [

J o = q A N V N C [ 1 N A D n − τ n − + 1 N D D p + τ p + ] exp ( − E g k T ) . (19)

where N_{V}, is the effective density of states in the valence band, N_{C} is the effective density of states in the conduction band, N_{A} is acceptor impurities concentration, N_{D} is donor impurities concentration, τ_{n}_{−} is electron (minority carrier) lifetime, τ_{p}_{+} is hole (minority carrier) lifetime, A is cross-sectional area of solar cell, E_{g} is the energy band-gap, D_{n}_{−} is electron diffusion coefficient and D_{p}_{+} is hole diffusion coefficient.

Applying Equation (1) to a solar module as explained by [

I o = I o S T C [ T T S T C ] 3 exp − q E g n N s ( 1 T S T C − 1 T ) . (20)

The saturation current can be calculated using Equations (8) to (18) at constant temperature of 25˚C to obtain I o S T C . This requires careful analysis of these equations to determine the one that produces the best results in the replication of the experimental data. However, these equations depend on I_{ph}, R_{s}, R_{sh} and n, which are unknown parameters that must be determined first.

The ideality factor can be evaluated as a function of series ad shunt resistances or by considering their extreme values. Considering the approach we introduced in our previous work [_{o}.

The exponential term exp(I_{sc}R_{s}/nN_{s}V_{t}), in the denominators of Equations ((13) and (15)) can be omitted, as it has insignificant value compared to the other exponential terms in the respective denominators. Therefore, Equations ((13) and (15)) can be written as

I o = I s c R s h + I s c R s − V o c R s h exp ( V o c n N s V t ) . (21)

and

I o = I s c R s + I s c R s h − V m p p − I m p p R s h − I m p p R s R s h exp ( V m p p + I m p p R s n N s V t ) . (22)

Equating Equations ((21) and (22)) and solving for n gives

n = V o c − V m p p − I m p p R s N s V t [ ln ( I s c R s h + I s c R s − V o c I s c R s h + I s c R s − I m p p R s h − I m p p R s − V m p p ) ] . (23)

The ideality factor can also be derived simply by first removing the exponential terms using logarithm and subtracting Equations (4) and (5) to obtain

n = V o c − V m p p − I m p p R s N s V t [ ln ( I p h + I o − V o c R s h I p h + I o − I m p p − V m p p + I m p p R s R s h ) ] . (24)

In Equation (24) the ideality factor relates with I_{ph}, I_{o}, R_{s} and R_{sh} at both maximum power point (I_{mpp}, V_{mpp}) and open circuit point (V_{oc}). For initial estimates, the R_{s} and R_{sh} values can be ignored in both the numerator and denominator. They have very small and very large values, where R_{s} ≈ 0 and R_{sh} ≈ ∞, respectively. This makes it possible to introduce the short circuit point into Equation (24) since the photocurrent relationship given in Equation (3) reduces to I_{ph} ≈ I_{sc}. Therefore, the ideality factor can be evaluated with respect to saturation current and the three crucial points as

n = V o c − V m p p N s V t [ ln ( I s c + I o I s c + I o − I m p p ) ] . (25)

This assumption gives n_{o} in terms of I_{sc}, I_{mpp}, V_{oc} and V_{mpp} only. Hence,

n o = V o c − V m p p N s V t [ ln ( I s c I s c − I m p p ) ] . (26)

The values of shunt and series resistance can be evaluated using the equations derived using I_{sc}, I_{mpp}, V_{mpp} and V_{oc} through an iterative process. Using I_{mpp} and V_{mpp} the relationship between R_{sh} and R_{s} can be evaluated by rearranging Equation (5) to obtain

R s h = V m p p + I m p p R s I p h − I m p p − I o ( exp ( V m p p + I m p p R s n N s V t ) − 1 ) . (27)

The combination of Equations (3) and (4) gives a relation between R_{sh} and R_{s} in terms of I_{sc} and V_{oc} given by

R s h = V o c − I s c R s I s c + I o exp ( I s c R s n N s V t ) − I o exp ( V o c n N s V t ) . (28)

Similarly, the combination of Equations ((3) and (5)) gives a relation between R_{sh} and R_{s} in terms of I_{sc}, I_{mpp} and V_{mpp} to obtain

R s h = V m p p + I m p p R s − I s c R s I s c − I m p p − I o exp ( V m p p + I m p p R s n N s V t ) + I o exp ( I s c R s n N s V t ) . (29)

Again, merging Equations ((4) and (5)) yields

R s h = V o c − V m p p − I m p p R s I m p p + I o exp ( V m p p + I m p p R s n N s V t ) − I o exp ( V o c n N s V t ) . (30)

Shunt resistance (R_{sh}) and series resistance (R_{s}) can also be analyzed using the vanishing slope of the output power at maximum power point of Equation (1) and derivatives at short circuit and open circuit points with respect to V [

The derivative of Equation (1) with respect to V gives

∂ I ∂ V = − I o n N s V t { ( 1 + ∂ I ∂ V R s ) exp ( V + I R s n N s V t ) } − 1 R s h ( 1 + ∂ I ∂ V R s ) . (31)

The derivative at short circuit point gives

[ ∂ I ∂ V ] I = I s c = − 1 R s h . (32)

and at open circuit point

[ ∂ I ∂ V ] V = V o c = − 1 R s . (33)

At maximum power point the power derivative with respect to voltage can be evaluated as

[ ∂ P ∂ V ] = ( ∂ I ∂ V ) V + I = 0 . (34)

At maximum power point the power derivative with respect to voltage can be evaluated as

− I m p p V m p p = − I o n N s V t { ( 1 − I m p p V m p p R s ) exp ( V m p p + I m p p R s n N s V t ) } − 1 R s h ( 1 + I m p p V m p p R s ) . (35)

By rearranging Equation (35) we can obtain

R s h = V m p p − I m p p R s I m p p − I o n N s V t ( V m p p + I m p p R s ) exp ( V m p p + I m p p R s n N s V t ) . (36)

This paper presents a simplified analytical approach for evaluating and analyzing R_{sh} and R_{s} pairs. Considering Equations ((27)-(30) and (36)), there are only three unknown parameters, i.e., R_{s}, the ideality factor and saturation current that appears on the right hand side of each equation. The saturation current has been derived in Equations ((14), (16) and (18)) with respect to ideality factor. A simple mathematical analysis can be done by replacing I_{o} in Equations ((27)-(30) and (36)) using Equation (14) to remain with ideality factor as the only unknown parameter. Comparing Equations ((27)-(30) and (36)), only Equation (30) that gives positive values of R_{sh} and R_{s} pairs after replacing I_{o} with Equation (14). Therefore, eliminating I_{o} of Equation (30) using (14) gives

R s h = V o c − V m p p − I m p p R s I m p p − I s c + I s c exp ( V m p p + I m p p R s − V o c n N s V t ) . (37)

Equation (37) can be analyzed using an iterative approach to obtain the [R_{s}, R_{sh}] pairs by selecting the values of n that are less than n_{o}. As introduced by [_{s} and R_{sh} limits can be calculated using

R s h max = V o c − V m p p I m p p . (38)

and

R s h min = V m p p I s c − I m p p − R s m a x . (39)

Limiting the ideality factor selection within the 0 ≤ n ≤ n_{o} range and setting R_{s} and R_{sh} limits given by Equations ((38) and (39)) respectively, makes the process fast and robust. In addition, the ideality factor is selected in order to get an R_{s} and R_{sh} pair that guarantees the simulated maximum power (P_{mpp}(sim)) matches maximum power obtained experimentally, where P m p p ( e x p t ) = I m p p ∗ V m p p . The P_{mpp}(sim) relationship can be derived by replacing I = I_{mpp} and V = V_{mpp} in Equation (1) to yield

P m p p ( s i m ) = V m p p ( I p h − I o ( exp V m p p + I m p p R s n N s V t − 1 ) − V m p p + I m p p R s R s h ) = P m p p ( e x p t ) . (40)

The value of I_{ph} in Equation (40) can be replaced using Equation (3) by letting the term I o exp ( I s c R s / n N s V t ) ≈ 0 , since it has insignificant value compared to the other terms. Thus we can rewrite,

I p h = I s c + I s c R s R s h . (41)

Further, the saturation current in Equation (40) can be replaced by Equation (16) to obtain

P m p p ( s i m ) = V m p p ( ( I s c + I s c R s R s h ) − ( I s c − I m p p exp ( V m p p n N s V t ) ) ( exp V m p p + I m p p R s n N s V t − 1 ) − V m p p + I m p p R s R s h ) = P m p p ( e x p t ) (42)

Both Equations (37) and (42) can be solved simultaneous by arbitrarily selecting ideality factor below n_{o} and by increasing the values of R_{s} from zero to R s max using computer software. This process is repeated until the value of simulated maximum power (P_{mpp}(sim)) matches maximum power obtained experimentally P_{mpp}(expt) or has an error margin of less than 0.5% [

The percentage error in power can be expressed as

P m p p E r r o r = Δ P m p p % = P m p p − I m p p R s I m p p V m p p . (43)

The values of n, R_{s} and R_{sh} can be extracted using an iterative process using Equation (37) and verified using both Equations ((42) and (43)). The ideality factor is arbitrarily chosen starting from n ≤ n_{0} [_{s}, R_{sh}] pair. Subsequently, in the iterative stage, these n, R_{s}, and R_{sh} values are used in Equation (42) until the trio that satisfies P m p p ( s i m ) ≡ P m p p ( e x p t ) is achieved.

_{sh} and R_{s} pairs. _{sh} and R_{s} relationship given by Equation (37) and has been sketched using data presented in

The optimum ideality factors and optimum saturation current are also listed in

_{s}, R_{sh}, I_{o} and I_{ph} parameters for Solinc 120 W and Kyocera KC200GT solar modules. The main aim has been to use the available information for I_{sc}, I_{mpp}, V_{oc} and V_{mpp} to arrive at most appropriate values listed in

The previous sections have demonstrated a simplified approach of obtaining the

Parameters | Solinc 120 W | KC200GT |
---|---|---|

I_{mpp} (A) | 7.1814 | 7.61 |

V_{mpp} (V) | 16.905 | 26.3 |

I_{sc} (A) | 7.59995 | 8.21 |

V_{oc} (V) | 21.529 | 32.9 |

N_{s} | 36 | 54 |

n_{o} | 1.72529 | 1.81928 |

I_{o-opt} (A) | 1.0439E−05 | 1.7807E−5 |

Parameters | Solinc 120 W | KC200GT |
---|---|---|

n | 1.1 | 1.34 |

R_{s} (Ω) | 0.236 | 0.214 |

R_{sh} (Ω) | 3746.809 | 525.145 |

I_{o} (A) | 4.9089E−09 | 1.6936E−07 |

I_{ph} (A) | 7.59995 | 8.2297 |

model parameters. The approach heavily depended on the values of I_{sc}, I_{mpp}, V_{oc} and V_{mpp}; the main cardinal points. This can be considered as a rough understanding of the solution of Equation (1). We have thus applied Newton-Raphson technique to iteratively solve Equation (1) in order to consider all points in characterization of photovoltaic modules using I-V and P-V curves. The Newton-Raphson technique is based on estimation of a given function f(I) = 0 [

We can rearrange Equation (1) as,

f ( I ) = I p h − I o [ exp ( V + I R s n N s V t ) − 1 ] − V + I R s R s h − I = 0 . (44)

Differentiating Equation (44) with. respect to I leads to

∂ ( f ( I ) ) ∂ I = − I o R s n N s V t [ exp ( V + I R s n N s V t ) ] − R s R s h − 1 . (45)

Therefore, we can apply Equations (44) and (45) to implement the Newton-Raphson approach and obtain

I j + 1 = I j − f ( I j ) ∂ ( f ( I j ) ) ∂ I = I j − I p h − I o [ exp ( V + I j R s n N s V t ) − 1 ] − V + I j R s R s h − I j − I o R s n N s V t [ exp ( V + I j R s n N s V t ) ] − R s R s h − 1 (46)

where, j represents the number of iterative process.

Equations (44)-(46) require initial values of n and R_{s}. In this paper, we introduce the new approach presented in section 4.4 that easily determines the trio values of n, R_{s} and R_{sh}. These values are also used to calculate I_{o} and I_{ph}. Implementation of all five parameter values in Equations (44)-(46) reduces the number of iterative processes needed to obtain the most suitable I and V values, thereby increasing the computation speed.

The identified values of I and V are applied in the power equation given by

P = I p h V − I o V [ exp ( V + I R s n N s V t ) − 1 ] − V 2 R s h − V I R s R s h . (47)

All the five parameters in _{sc} and V = 0 to V = V_{oc}. It offers very precise solutions for all the points needed to plot the I-V and P-V or P-I curves.

In this work, we have classified four most suitable data extraction approaches for determining I and V using Newton-Raphson method. These categories depend on the choice of saturation current equations discussed in section 4.2 and 4.3.1. Category 1 is based on saturation currents that are dependent on R_{s} and R_{sh} resistances at open and short circuit points (SCDR-OS) where I_{o} is calculated using Equations ((11), (13) and (21)). Category 2 is based on saturation current that is independent of R_{s} and R_{sh} resistances at open and short circuit points (SCIR-OS), where I_{o} is calculated using Equations ((12) and (14)). Categories 3 and 4 are based on saturation currents at both open circuit and maximum power points that are dependent on R_{s} and R_{sh} resistances (SCDR-OMP) and saturation currents that are independent of R_{s} and R_{sh} resistances (SCIR-OMP), where the I_{o}s are calculated using Equations ((17) and (18)) respectively. The use of saturation current defined by Equations ((9), (10), (15), (16) and (22)) does, however, provide unsatisfactory data for I and V.

These procedures can be implemented using the algorithm shown in

· The process starts with input values of I_{sc}, I_{mpp}, V_{mpp}, V_{oc}, N_{s} and V_{t} from

· Followed by setting the number of iterations, NiMax for current approximation and NvMax for voltage resolution plus precision description for R_{s} increment defined by Rsinc.

· The algorithm presented in _{s} and R_{sh} values.

· These n, R_{s} and R_{sh} are used to calculate I_{o} and I_{ph} for the first iteration of determining the current and voltage data.

· The process is repeated severally for each iteration with an increment of R_{s} (R_{s} = R_{s} + Rsinc) until NiMax and NvMax are reached by solving Equations (44)-(46).

· The P-error is then evaluated to determine the most suitable values for n, R_{s}, R_{sh}, I_{o} and I_{ph} which give the best current, voltage and power data.

· If the error in power is greater than 0.5%, the process is repeated by inputting a new value of ideality actor.

· Finally, the process ends by plotting I-V and P-V curves and the cardinal point markers if the error in power is less or equal to 0.5%.

Parameters | Equations for {R_{s}, R_{sh}}pair | Series Resistance (R_{s} (Ω)) | Shunt Resistance (R_{sh} (Ω)) | Ideality Factor (n) | Saturation Current (I_{o} × 10^{−9} (A)) | Photo Current (I_{ph} (A)) | Power (P_{mpp} (W)) | Change in Power (∆P_{mpp} %) | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Approach 1 | (27) | 0.233 | 6694.87 | 1.1 | 4.8984 | 7.6014 | 121.463 | 0.0456 | |

(29) | 0.233 | 6943.00 | 1.1 | 4.8857 | 7.6032 | 121.505 | 0.0844 | ||

Approach 2 | (27) | 0.233 | 3746.81 | 1.1 | 4.9089 | 7.6045 | 121.457 | 0.0444 | |

(28) | 0.233 | 706,150,048 | 1.1 | 4.9089 | 7.6000 | 121.464 | 0.0503 | ||

(29) | 0.233 | 37,898.74 | 1.1 | 4.9089 | 7.6003 | 121.462 | 0.0486 | ||

(30) | 0.233 | −6653.75 | 1.1 | 4.9089 | 7.6443 | 122.190 | 0.6481 | ||

(36) | 0.255 | −279.34 | 1.1 | 4.9089 | 7.6485 | 122.056 | 0.5380 | ||

Approach 3 | (27) | 0.233 | 3054.06 | 1.1 | 4.9009 | 7.6049 | 121.458 | 0.0452 | |

(28) | 0.233 | 240.07 | 1.1 | 4.8557 | 7.6443 | 121.026 | −0.3105 | ||

(29) | 0.233 | 23,248.547 | 1.1 | 4.9056 | 7.6008 | 121.469 | 0.0548 | ||

(36) | 0.254 | 12,008.21 | 1.1 | 4.9036 | 7.6483 | 121.082 | −0.2642 | ||

Approach 4 | (27) | 0.2395 | 18,565.30 | 1.1 | 4.6883 | 7.6005 | 121.459 | 0.0280 | |

(28) | 0.1501 | 59.71 | 1.1 | 4.6883 | 7.6286 | 121.319 | −0.0416 | ||

(29) | 0.2395 | 34,945.22 | 1.1 | 4.6883 | 7.6000 | 121.459 | 0.0283 | ||

(36) | 0.2608 | 6726.41 | 1.1 | 4.6883 | 7.6496 | 121.062 | −0.1704 |

Parameters | Equations for {R_{s}, R_{sh}} pair | Series Resistance (R_{s} (Ω)) | Shunt Resistance (R_{sh} (Ω)) | Ideality Factor (n) | Saturation Current (I_{o} × 10^{−7} (A)) | Photo Current (I_{ph} (A)) | Power (P_{mpp} (W)) | Change in Power (∆P_{mpp} %) | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Approach 1 | (27) | 0.2187 | 712.83 | 1.34 | 1.6671 | 8.2174 | 200.143 | 0.000018 | |

(29) | 0.2187 | 904.25 | 1.34 | 1.6755 | 8.2151 | 200.218 | 0.0377 | ||

Approach 2 | (27) | 0.2134 | 367.85 | 1.34 | 1.6936 | 8.2508 | 200.143 | 0.000015 | |

(28) | 0.2134 | 71,669,727 | 1.34 | 1.6936 | 8.2100 | 201.013 | 0.4345 | ||

(29) | 0.2134 | 744.51 | 1.34 | 1.6936 | 8.2124 | 200.144 | 0.00051 | ||

(30) | 0.2283 | 13,153.36 | 1.34 | 1.6936 | 8.2100 | 200.076 | −0.0335 | ||

(36) | 0.2165 | 1013.88 | 1.34 | 1.6936 | 8.2120 | 200.200 | 0.0283 | ||

Approach 3 | (27) | 0.2161 | 749.58 | 1.34 | 1.6840 | 8.2152 | 200.143 | 0.000016 | |

(28) | 0.2161 | 200.48 | 1.34 | 1.6616 | 8.2513 | 198.701 | −0.72038 | ||

(29) | 0.2282 | 1,367,493 | 1.34 | 1.6932 | 8.2107 | 200.152 | 0.0045 | ||

(36) | 0.2198 | 379.03 | 1.34 | 1.6637 | 8.252 | 200.108 | −0.0176 | ||

Approach 4 | (27) | 0.2258 | 368.61 | 1.34 | 1.6163 | 8.2531 | 200.143 | 0.000007 | |

(28) | 0.1002 | 85.55 | 1.34 | 1.6163 | 8.2196 | 199.970 | −0.0862 | ||

(29) | 0.2279 | 934.82 | 1.34 | 1.6163 | 8.2120 | 200.143 | 0.000014 | ||

(36) | 0.2289 | 1068.57 | 1.34 | 1.6163 | 8.212 | 200.176 | 0.0165 |

KC200GT solar modules and their simulated output power and errors. The following sections discuss the most realistic results of the five-model parameter that provide more practical data for each approach that fits experimental results. Four approaches are listed here since they give small percentage error.

Approach 1

The data shown in _{o} is determined using Equations ((11), (13) or (21)). However, this category only gives a satisfying [R_{s}, R_{sh}] pair from Equations ((27) and (29)).

Approach 2

The data shown in _{o} has been calculated using either Equations (12) or (14) that are independent of R_{s}, R_{sh} pair. This category gives satisfactory

[R_{s}, R_{sh}] pair from Equations ((27), (28) (29), (30) and (36)).

Approach 3

Again, the data shown in _{o} is determined using Equation (17). This category gives satisfactory [R_{s}, R_{sh}] pair only from Equations ((27), (28), (29) and (36)).

Approach 4

Finally, rows 13 - 16 of _{o} is determined using Equation (18) that is independent of R_{s}, R_{sh} pair. This category also gives satisfactory [R_{s}, R_{sh}] pair only from Equations ((27), (28), (29) and (36)).

It is clear from _{o}) calculated using Equations ((12) or (14)) in approach 2 gives acceptable ∆P_{mpp} errors when applied to all R_{sh} Equations ((27)-(30), or (36)).

Approach 1 gives satisfactory data when applied in Equations ((27) and (29)). Other approaches, 3 and 4 give reasonable results when applied in Equations ((27), (28), (29) and (36)). Evidently, Equations ((27) and (29)) that have been derived at maximum power point and combination of maximum power point and short circuit equations, respectively, give the best results of ∆P_{mpp} error for all saturation current equations at constant ideality factor. Equation (28) gives very large and very small values of R_{sh} when applied in approaches 2 and 4. All the four approaches give satisfactory data when compared with other methods reported by different authors as demonstrated in

These data are summarized in _{sh} of Equation (27) that gives the smallest error for each approach. Approach 1 data and data from [_{sh} values for the same R_{s} = 0.233 Ω. However, approach 4 has R_{s} = 0.2395 Ω that gives the least ∆P_{mpp} error and very large value of R_{sh} = 18,565 Ω. Analytical approach reported by [

The values of five-model parameters obtained using approaches discussed in the works of [

Parameters | Series Resistance (R_{s} (Ω)) | Shunt Resistance (R_{sh} (Ω)) | Ideality Factor (n) | Saturation Current (I_{o} × 10^{−9} (A)) | Photo Current (I_{ph} (A)) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Approach 1 | 0.233 | 6694.87 | 1.1 | 4.5915 | 7.6014 |

Approach 2 | 0.233 | 3746.81 | 1.1 | 4.9089 | 7.6045 |

Approach 3 | 0.233 | 3054.06 | 1.1 | 4.9009 | 7.6049 |

Approach 4 | 0.2395 | 18,565.30 | 1.1 | 4.6883 | 7.6005 |

[ | 0.233 | 6694.87 | 1.1 | 4.8984 | 7.6014 |

[ | 0.264 | 16,400.11 | 1.1 | 4.5915 | 7.6502 |

Parameters | Series Resistance (R_{s} (Ω)) | Shunt Resistance (R_{sh} (Ω)) | Ideality Factor (n) | Saturation Current (I_{o} (A)) | Photo Current (I_{ph} (A)) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Approach 1 | 0.2187 | 712.83 | 1.34 | 1.667E−07 | 8.2174 |

Approach 2 | 0.2134 | 367.85 | 1.34 | 1.694E−07 | 8.2508 |

Approach 3 | 0.2161 | 749.58 | 1.34 | 1.684E−07 | 8.2152 |

Approach 4 | 0.2258 | 368.61 | 1.34 | 1.616E−07 | 8.2531 |

Data by [ | 0.217 | 951.927 | 1.34 | 1.7100E−7 | 8.212 |

Data by [ | 0.221 | 415.405 | 1.3 | 9.825E−8 | 8.214 |

Data by [ | 0.231 | 594.851 | 1.3 | 9.6990E−8 | 8.213 |

Data by [ | 0.217 | 951.92 | 1.342 | 1.71E−7 | 8.211 |

Data by [ | 0.2108 | 145.083 | 1.1578 | 1.01E−8 | 8.226 |

Data by [ | 0.21095 | 192.757 | 1.1482 | 8.6369E−9 | 8.218985 |

Solinc 120 W using approaches 1 - 4 of

These data are summarized in _{sh} of Equation (27) that gives the smallest error for each approach. Approach 1 data and data from [_{sh} values for the same R_{s} = 0.233 Ω. However, approach 4 has R_{s} = 0.2395 Ω that gives the least ∆P_{mpp} error and very large value of R_{sh} = 18565 Ω. Analytical approach reported by [

The results obtained using analytical methods published by [_{s} obtained using the four methods discussed in this work are consistent with their analysis within ±0.02 Ω. All parameter values shown in

The values of simulated parameters listed in

The current-voltage relationship for KC200GT is shown in

The effects of the actual solar irradiation (s_{a}) and module’s surface temperature T on five-model parameters have been recently studied at open circuit, closed circuit and maximum power points [

Starting with the cardinal points, the short circuit current can be determined using

I s c ( s a , T ) = s a s S T C [ I s c S T C + K I s c ( T − T S T C ) ] (48)

where, K I s c is the temperature coefficient of I_{sc} in A/˚C that is usually provided in manufacturer’s data sheet. The maximum power-point current can be determined using

I m p p ( s a , T ) = s a s S T C [ I m p p S T C + K I s m p p ( T − T S T C ) ] (49)

where, K I m p p is the temperature coefficient of I_{mpp} in A/˚C. Unlike K I s c , the manufacturer’s data sheet does not include K I m p p . This can be evaluated by simply applying the data at both STC and NOCT.

Manufacturers of solar modules with ISO/IEC International Standard provide, nominal operation cell temperature (NOCT) values at 800 W/m^{2} at 20˚C [_{a}) using

T = T a + [ T N O C T − 20 ] s a 800 (50)

For maximum power-point voltage a more robust analytical approach has been recently used by [

V m p p ( s a , T ) = V m p p S T C + K v m p p ( T − T S T C ) + α v m p p ( s a − s S T C ) + β v m p p ( s a − s S T C ) 2 (51)

where, α V m p p and β V m p p are solar radiation coefficients at maximum-power point. Similarly, the short-circuit voltage can be evaluated as

V o c ( s a , T ) = V o c S T C + K v o c ( T − T S T C ) + α V o c ( s a − s S T C ) + β V o c ( s a − s S T C ) 2 (52)

where α V o c , β V o c are solar radiation coefficients at open circuit point.

Equations (51) and (52) are quadratic polynomials that require a careful extraction of the second-degree polynomial coefficients. In this paper, we have introduced a simpler approach for determining V_{oc} (s_{a}, T) and V_{mpp} (s_{a}, T) using

V o c ( s a , T ) = n ( s a , T ) N s V t ( T ) [ ln ( I s c ( s a , T ) ) − ln ( I o ( s a , T ) ) ] (53)

and,

V m p p ( s a , T ) = V o c ( s a , T ) − n o N s V t ( T ) × [ ln ( I s c ( s a , T ) I s c ( s a , T ) − I m p p ( s a , T ) ) ] (54)

The saturation current dependence on module temperature can be achieved by rewriting Equation (20) as

I o ( s a , T ) = I o S T C [ T T S T C ] 3 exp − q E g n ( s a , T ) N s ( 1 T S T C − 1 T ) . (55)

The temperature-dependent saturation current of Equation (55) can be compared with I_{o} of Equation (56), in which Equation (14) has been written as

I o = I s c ( s a , T ) exp ( V o c ( s a , T ) n ( s a , T ) N s V t ( T ) ) . (56)

Finally, the R_{s} and R_{sh} pair dependency on irradiance and temperature have been evaluated using Equation (27), by replacing its I_{ph}, I_{o}, I_{mpp} and V_{mpp} with values extracted using Equations ((7), (56), (49) and (54)) respectively.

The Kyocera KC200GT high-performance multi-crystal photovoltaic module with IEC standard has been used to demonstrate the effects of irradiance and temperature on main parameters of a single diode model as shown in ^{2} for the three cardinal points that have been used as starting

Irradiance (W/m^{2}) | 200 | 400 | 600 | 800 | 1000 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

I_{sc} (A) | 1.653 | 3.306 | 4.959 | 6.612 | 8.28 |

I_{mpp} (A) | 1.533 | 3.066 | 4.599 | 6.132 | 7.665 |

V_{mpp} (V) | 20.134 | 21.518 | 22.327 | 22.901 | 23.412 |

V_{mpp} (V) Ref. [ | 21.549 | 22.295 | 22.822 | 23.130 | 23.220 |

V_{oc} (V) | 27.239 | 28.623 | 29.432 | 30.006 | 30.455 |

V_{oc} (V) Ref. [ | 28.062 | 28.818 | 29.425 | 29.884 | 30.194 |

n | 1.1 | 1.12 | 1.28 | 1.32 | 1.34 |

I_{o} × 10^{−6} (A) | 998.90 | 11.728 | 98.249 | 1.5618 | 1.9613 |

I_{ph} (A) | 1.6564 | 3.3082 | 4.9629 | 6.6164 | 8.2844 |

R_{s} (Ω) | 1.742 | 0.802 | 0.452 | 0.313 | 0.242 |

R_{sh} (Ω) | 1750.956 | 555.481 | 2864.877 | 2235.484 | 6896.84 |

P_{mpp} (W) | 30.924 | 66.098 | 102.814 | 140.574 | 179.561 |

∆P_{mpp}% | 0.1911 | 0.1879 | 0.1285 | 0.1037 | 0.0603 |

conditions to evaluate other parameters at various irradiances. In _{sc} (s_{a}, T), I_{mpp} (s_{a}, T), V_{mpp} (s_{a}, T) and V_{oc} (s_{a}, T) data have been applied in approach 2 discussed in section 5.1 to extracted I_{ph} (s_{a}, T), I_{o} (s_{a}, T), n (s_{a}, T) R_{s} (s_{a}, T) and R_{sh} (s_{a}, T) and plot I-V and P-V curves at various irradiances.

The values of α V m p p , α V o c , β V m p p and β V o c presented in the supplementary data published by [_{mpp} and V_{oc} of equations (51) and (52). The simulated values of V_{oc} using Equation (53) and V_{mpp} using Equation (54) for irradiances chosen at 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 W/m^{2}, have been compared with the values obtained based on the [^{2}, and air temperature of 20˚C and NOCT of 47˚C, while

In this report, we have considered photovoltaic systems operating at STC and various weather conditions and have presented two algorithms for extracting their five-model parameters based on a single-diode analogous circuit. The first algorithm plays an important role in deriving the unknown parameters to give a rough idea of their values that are used as preliminary data for the second algorithm based on Newton-Raphson numerical analysis method. This is a deviation from conventional methods, which assume initial arbitrary values.

In an attempt to establish the most comprehensive and simple procedure of arriving at the best five-model parameters, we categorized four approaches based

T_{a} (˚C) | 20 | 25 | 30 | 35 | 40 | 45 | 50 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

NOCT (˚C) | 53.75 | 58.75 | 63.75 | 68.75 | 73.75 | 78.75 | 83.75 |

T (Kelvin) | 326.9 | 331.9 | 336.9 | 341.9 | 346.9 | 351.9 | 356.9 |

I_{sc} (A) | 8.3014 | 8.2944 | 8.3069 | 8.3194 | 8.3319 | 8.3444 | 8.3569 |

I_{mpp} (A) | 7.6819 | 7.6944 | 7.7069 | 7.7194 | 7.6650 | 7.7444 | 7.7569 |

V_{mpp} (V) | 22.522 | 21.758 | 21.079 | 20.399 | 19.717 | 19.034 | 18.350 |

V_{mpp} (V) Ref. [ | 22.275 | 21.575 | 20.875 | 20.175 | 19.475 | 18.775 | 18.075 |

V_{oc} (V) | 29.700 | 29.133 | 28.570 | 28.005 | 27.440 | 26.872 | 26.304 |

V_{oc} (V) Ref. [ | 29.364 | 28.749 | 28.134 | 27.519 | 26.904 | 26.289 | 25.674 |

n | 1.16 | 1.14 | 1.13 | 1.124 | 1.1 | 1.06 | 1.012 |

I_{o} × 10^{−6} (A) | 40.682 | 54.031 | 82.299 | 1.3145 | 1.6203 | 1.577 | 1.2491 |

I_{ph} (A) | 8.3120 | 8.3062 | 8.3199 | 8.334 | 8.3546 | 8.3642 | 8.3812 |

R_{s}(Ω) | 0.332 | 0.352 | 0.363 | 0.371 | 0.412 | 0.418 | 0.468 |

R_{sh} (Ω) | 913.865 | 928.483 | 925.197 | 831.949 | 437.605 | 726.471 | 814.787 |

P_{mpp} (W) | 173.043 | 167.596 | 162.742 | 157.875 | 151.425 | 148.048 | 143.036 |

∆P_{mpp}% | 0.0191 | 0.1108 | 0.1787 | 0.2601 | 0.1940 | 0.4339 | 0.4901 |

of saturation-current relationships at the cardinal points of I-V plot. We considered the effect of shunt and series resistance on the saturation current at each key cardinal point or combination of two points, and found that dependence on the actual resistance induces a slight deviation of the saturation current as opposed to extreme resistance. When applied to the Newton-Raphson numerical analysis method, all four approaches provided satisfactory output current and voltage values that match the experimental data or data presented in manufacturer’s datasheet.

Beginning with the numerical values of the five-model parameters at STC, we simulated the five-model parameters at various irradiances and temperatures. We have presented new approaches to obtaining the V_{oc} and V_{mpp} at various irradiances and temperatures.

The authors would like to thank the Department of Physics and the Board of Graduate School; University of Nairobi (Kenya) for providing all the facilities and financial support respectively for this research.

The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.

Ndegwa, R., Ayieta, E., Simiyu, J. and Odero, N. (2020) A Simplified Simulation Procedure and Analysis of a Photovoltaic Solar System Using a Single Diode Model. Journal of Power and Energy Engineering, 8, 65-93. https://doi.org/10.4236/jpee.2020.89006