^{1}

^{*}

^{1}

Motivated by their intrinsic interest and by applications to the study of numeric palindromes and other sequences of integers, we discover a method for producing infinite sets of solutions and almost solutions of the equation
*N*
⋅*M* = *reversal* (*N*⋅*M*
)
, our results are valid in a general numeration base
*b* > 2.

In this paper, motivated by their intrinsic interest and by applications to the study of numeric palindromes and other sequences of integers, we discover a method for producing infinite sets of solutions and almost solutions of the equation:

N ⋅ M = r e v e r s a l ( N ⋅ M ) . (1)

where if N is an integer written in base b, which is understood from the context then reversal(N) is the base b integer obtained from N writing its digits in reverse order.

An almost solution of (1) is a pair of integers ( M , N ) for which the equality (1) holds up to a few of digits for which we understand their position. Our results are valid in a general numeration base b > 2 and complement the results in [

Another application of our results may appear in the study of the classes of b-multiplicative and b-additive Ramanujan-Hardy numbers, recently introduced in Nitica [

The heuristics behind our results is that the product of a palindrome by a small integer still preserves some of the symmetric structure of the palindrome; if, in addition, the palindrome has many digits of 9, many times the results observed in base 10 can be carried over to an arbitrary numeration base b replacing 9 by b − 1.

Let b ≥ 2 be a numeration base. If x is a string of digits, let ( x ) ^ k denote the base b integer obtained by repeating x k-times. Let [ x ] b denote the value of the string x in base b.

Next theorem is one of our main results.

Theorem 1. Let b ≥ 2 be a numeration base. Let 0 < A , B , c , d ≤ b integers such that A ⋅ B = [ c d ] b and c + d = A . Then,

A ^ k ⋅ B = [ c A ^ k − 1 d ] b .

Proof of Theorem 1 is covered in Section 3. Similar proof to that of Theorem 1 gives also the somewhat stronger statement Theorem 3.

The above table illustrates the result from Theorem 1 if b = 10 and ( A , B ) = ( 9 , 9 ) , [ c d ] b = [ 81 ] 10 , and k ∈ { 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 } . Note that 9 × 9 = 81 and 8 + 1 = 9 .

Theorem 2. Let b > 2 numeration base and k , l > 1 integers then one has:

( b − 1 ) ^ k ⋅ [ a 1 a 2 a 3 ⋯ a l ] b = [ a 1 a 2 a 3 ⋯ a l ] b [ a 1 a 2 a 3 ⋯ a l − 1 ] b ( b − 1 ) ^ ( k − l ) − [ b l − a 1 a 2 a 3 ⋯ a l ] b (2)

in particular if b is odd and [ a 1 a 2 a 3 ⋯ a l ] b = ( b l − 1 ) / 2 .

Then (2) gives a solution of (1).

The proof of Theorem 2 is done in Section 4.

The following examples illustrate the statement of Theorem 2.

Example:

9 ^ 130 ⋅ [ 123 ] 10 = [ 122 9 ^ 1327 83 ] 10

7 ^ 130 ⋅ [ 123 ] 8 = [ 1227 ^ 127 489 ] 8

9 ^ 130 ⋅ [ 123 ] 10 = [ 122 9 ^ 127 389 ] 8

Theorem 3. let b > 2 umeration base. Let 0 < A , B , c , d , α ≤ b integers such that A ⋅ B = [ c d ] b and c + d = α . Then,

A ^ k B = [ c α ^ k − 1 d ] b = A B ^ k

Next theorem shows for all numeration bases examples of pairs ( A , B ) that satisfy the hypothesis of Theorem 1.

Theorem 4. Let b ≥ 2 be a numeration base. Then the pairs ( A B ) = [ ( b − 1 ) ( b − k ) ] b , 1 ≤ k ≤ b satisfy the hypothesis of Theorem 1.

Proof:

[ ( b − 1 ) ( b − k ) ] b

b 2 − b k − b + k = b ( b − k − 1 ) + k = [ [ b − k − 1 ] , k ] b

⇒ b − k − 1 + k = b − 1.

Corollary. Let b ≥ 2 be numeration base. Then [ ( b − 1 ) ( b − 2 ) ] b .

Consequently, satisfies the hypothesis of Theorem 1, consequently

( b − 1 ) ^ k ( b − 2 ) = [ ( b − 3 ) ( b − 1 ) ^ ( k − 1 ) 2 ] b .

Proof: apply Theorem 4 to the pair ( A B ) = ( b − 1 ) ( b − 2 ) .

The above table illustrates the result from Theorem 1 & Theorem 3 if b = 7 , b − 1 = 6 , b − 2 = 5 , [ c d ] b = [ 42 ] 7 , thus A = 6 , B = 5 and k ∈ { 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 } . Note that [ 6 ⋅ 5 ] 7 = [ 42 ] 7 and [ 4 + 2 ] 7 = 6 .

| b ( A , B ) 2 3 ( 2 , 2 ) 4 ( 2 , 3 ) , ( 3 , 2 ) , ( 3 , 3 ) 5 ( 2 , 3 ) , ( 2 , 4 ) , ( 3 , 2 ) , ( 3 , 4 ) , ( 4 , 2 ) , ( 4 , 3 ) , ( 4 , 4 ) 6 ( 2 , 5 ) , ( 3 , 5 ) , ( 4 , 5 ) , ( 5 , 2 ) , ( 5 , 3 ) , ( 5 , 4 ) , ( 5 , 5 ) 7 ( 2 , 4 ) , ( 2 , 6 ) , ( 3 , 3 ) , ( 3 , 5 ) , ( 3 , 6 ) , ( 4 , 2 ) , ( 4 , 4 ) , ( 4 , 6 ) , ( 5 , 3 ) , ( 5 , 6 ) , ( 6 , 2 ) , ( 6 , 3 ) , ( 6 , 4 ) , ( 6 , 5 ) , ( 6 , 6 ) 8 ( 3 , 7 ) , ( 4 , 7 ) , ( 5 , 7 ) , ( 6 , 7 ) , ( 7 , 2 ) , ( 7 , 3 ) , ( 7 , 4 ) , ( 7 , 5 ) , ( 7 , 6 ) , ( 7 , 7 ) 9 ( 2 , 5 ) , ( 2 , 8 ) , ( 3 , 4 ) , ( 3 , 8 ) , ( 4 , 3 ) , ( 4 , 5 ) , ( 4 , 6 ) , ( 4 , 7 ) , ( 4 , 8 ) , ( 5 , 2 ) , ( 5 , 4 ) , ( 5 , 6 ) , ( 5 , 8 ) , ( 6 , 4 ) , ( 6 , 5 ) , ( 6 , 8 ) , ( 7 , 4 ) , ( 7 , 8 ) , ( 8 , 2 ) , ( 8 , 3 ) , ( 8 , 4 ) , ( 8 , 5 ) , ( 8 , 6 ) , ( 8 , 7 ) , ( 8 , 8 ) 10 ( 2 , 9 ) , ( 3 , 4 ) , ( 3 , 7 ) , ( 3 , 9 ) , ( 4 , 6 ) , ( 4 , 9 ) , ( 5 , 9 ) , ( 6 , 4 ) , ( 6 , 7 ) , ( 6 , 9 ) , ( 7 , 3 ) , ( 7 , 6 ) , ( 7 , 9 ) , ( 8 , 9 ) , ( 9 , 2 ) , ( 9 , 3 ) , ( 9 , 4 ) , ( 9 , 5 ) , ( 9 , 6 ) , ( 9 , 7 ) , ( 9 , 8 ) , ( 9 , 9 ) |

The above table shows all pairs ( A , B ) that satisfy the hypothesis of Theorem 1 for small numeration bases. We observe that for b = 2 there are no pairs ( A , B ) that satisfy the hypothesis of Theorem 1.

∑ l = 1 k A b l ⋅ B = ∑ l = 1 k A ⋅ B b l = ∑ l = 1 k ( c b + d ) b l = ∑ l = 1 k c ⋅ b l + 1 + d ⋅ ∑ l = 1 k b l = c ⋅ b k + 1 + ∑ l = 1 k − 1 c ⋅ b + ∑ l = 1 k − 1 d ⋅ b + d ⋅ b k = c ⋅ b k + 1 + ∑ l = 1 k − 1 ( c + d ) ⋅ b l + d ⋅ b k = c ⋅ b k + 1 + ∑ l = 1 k − 1 A ⋅ b + d ⋅ b k = [ c ( A ) ^ k − 1 d ] b

Using that ( b − 1 ) k = b k − 1 and that ( b − 1 ) k − l = b k − l − 1 .

One has that:

( b − 1 ) k ⋅ [ a 1 a 2 a 3 ⋯ a l ] b = ( b k − 1 ) ⋅ [ a 1 a 2 a 3 ⋯ a l ] b = [ + b k a 1 a 2 a 3 ⋯ a l ] b − b l [ a 1 a 2 a 3 ⋯ a l ] b = + [ + b k a 1 a 2 a 3 ⋯ a l ] b − 1 + b k + b l − b l = + [ + b k a 1 a 2 a 3 ⋯ a l ] b − 1 + b l ( b k − l − 1 ) + [ b l − a 1 a 2 a 3 ⋯ a l ] b = − 1 ( b − 1 ) ^ ( k − l ) − [ b l − a 1 a 2 a 3 ⋯ a l ] b

Motivated by possible applications to the study of palindromes and other sequences of integers we discover a method for producing infinite families of integer solutions and almost solutions of the equation N ⋅ M = r e v e r s a l ( N ⋅ M ) . Our results complement the results in [

While working on this project C. E. was an undergraduate student at West Chester University of Pennsylvania.

The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.

Nitica, V. and Ekinci, C. (2020) Infinite Sets of Solutions and Almost Solutions of the Equation N∙M = reversal(N∙M) II. Open Journal of Discrete Mathematics, 10, 69-73. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojdm.2020.103007