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National Small Flows Clearinghouse, “Infiltration and Inflow Can be Costly for Communities,” Pipeline, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1999, p. 1.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Evaluating Subdivisions for Identifying Extraneous Flow in Separate Sanitary Sewer Systems

    AUTHORS: Adam Lanning, Eric W. Peterson

    KEYWORDS: Sanitary Sewers; Inflow; Infiltration; Modeling

    JOURNAL NAME: Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol.4 No.6, June 20, 2012

    ABSTRACT: Separate sanitary sewer systems are designed to convey sewage waste from municipal areas to a central treatment facility; they are not designed to handle water associated with precipitation events. However, intercept of groundwater (infiltration) and of flows through manholes or unauthorized connections (inflows) introduces rainwater into the sanitary sewer system. Infiltration/Inflow (I/I) increases the costs associated with treatment and can create additional environmental problems. Identifying and quantifying the volume I/I can be complicated and costly. A simple quantitative method was developed to quantify the extent of I/I occurring in sewer sheds. The method uses measured sewer flows, water usage, precipitation values, and land cover data to calculate the volume of extraneous flows. To assess its utility, the method was used to compare two urban sewer sheds, Holiday Knolls and Eagle View. Both sewer sheds showed evidence of I/I in excess of 200 gallons per day per inch-mile of sewer pipe (gpd/in-mile). Holiday Knolls, the older subdivision had an average I/I of 1912 gpd/in-mile, while Eagle View had an average of 1143 gpd/in-mile. The devel- oped method provided simple means to calculate I/I and to identify sewer sheds in need of repair.