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WHO (2019) Chronic Rheumatic Conditions: Osteoarthritis.
http://www.who.int/chp/topics/rheumatic/en

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Penetration of Topical Glucosamine Sulfate into the Synovial Fluid of Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Nonrandomized, Open-Label, Single Dose, Bioavailability Study

    AUTHORS: Matthew Kong, Khadijah Binte Hashim, Phoebe Lin, Gaëlle Coestesquis, Aiyun Xu, Frederick Lebes, Choon Meng Ting

    KEYWORDS: Osteoarthritis of the Knee, Transdermal Delivery, Glucosamine, Synovial Fluid, Joints

    JOURNAL NAME: Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, Vol.7 No.11, November 8, 2019

    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study aims to show that a proprietary topical cream can deliver glucosamine through the skin into the synovial fluid of osteoarthritic patients. This cream contains 10% w/w glucosamine sulfate. It also aims to determine the endogenous level of glucosamine in the synovial fluid of these patients. Therapeutic effectiveness of glucosamine is not addressed in this study. Design: This phase IV, open-label, nonrandomized study enrolled 240 patients. Participants from the Test group received a single dose treatment (2 g of cream), and synovial fluid samples were collected 1 - 3 hours post-treatment. Patients from the Control group were not subjected to any treatment but their synovial fluid was also sampled to establish a glucosamine concentration baseline for Time-0 (T0). Glucosamine concentrations were determined by HPLC analysis. Results: The mean glucosamine concentration in the synovial fluid of patients from the Test group (100.56 ng/ml, 95% CI 66.36 - 134.76, n = 117) was higher than in the Control group (17.83 ng/ml, 95% CI 7.42 - 28.24, n = 117) resulting in a significant between-group difference (p Conclusion: The results suggest that glucosamine can be topically delivered across the human skin into the synovial fluid using a proper vehicle. This suggests that other water-soluble molecules could similarly be delivered transdermally, alleviating the need for oral delivery in cases where oral administration is difficult, or when harmful side effects could ensue.