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Article citations


Bubeck Wardenburg, J., Bae, T., Otto, M., Deleo, F.R. and Schneewind, O. (2007) Poring over Pores: α-Hemolysin and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin in Staphylococcus aureus Pneumonia. Nature Medicine, 13, 1405-1406.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Hemolysins of Staphylococcus aureus—An Update on Their Biology, Role in Pathogenesis and as Targets for Anti-Virulence Therapy

    AUTHORS: Sireesha Divyakolu, Rosy Chikkala, Kamaraju Suguna Ratnakar, Venkataraman Sritharan

    KEYWORDS: Staphylococcus aureus, Hemolysins, PVL, Quorum Sensing, Biofilm, Anti-Virulence Therapy

    JOURNAL NAME: Advances in Infectious Diseases, Vol.9 No.2, June 12, 2019

    ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus is a dangerous gram positive bacterial pathogen which, not only evades the host’s immune system but also can destroy the leucocytes especially neutrophils. It has an embodiment of virulence factors most of which are secreted. Staphylococcus aureus secretes a number of toxins which cause tissue damage and facilitate spreading and nutrients uptake. Among the toxins, hemolysins α, β, γ, δ and Panton Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) are unique that they drill pores in the membrane, leading to the efflux of vital molecules and metabolites. Hemolysins also help in the scavenging of iron, although many of them also have leucolytic properties. α-hemolysin, also known as α-toxin, is the most prominent cytotoxin which damages a wide range of host cells including epithelial cells, endothelial cells, erythrocytes, monocytes, keratinocytes and it damages cell membrane and induces apoptosis. β-Hemolysin significantly affects human immune cell function. It has Mg2+ dependent sphingomyelinase activity and degrades sphingomyelin of plasma membrane into phosphorylcholine and ceramides. The bi-component leukocidins, which include γ-hemolysin and PVL, attack human phagocytic cells and greatly contribute to immune evasion. Delta toxin is a low molecular weight exotoxin with a broad cytolytic activity. Virulence determinants, quorum sensing and biofilm synthesis provide some attractive targets for design and development of a new group of antimicrobial compounds. This review provides an update on the structure, biological functions of hemolysins and their role in quorum sensing/biofilm synthesis (if any) and as effective therapeutic targets for anti-virulence drug development. We have tried to bring together information available on various aspects of hemolysins and highlighted their distribution among all species of Staphylococcus and other bacteria. We have updated the status of development of candidate drugs targeting the hemolysins for anti-virulence therapy as it offers an additional strategy to reduce the severity of infection and which would, through quorum quenching, delay the development biofilms leading to drug resistance.