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Riess, A.G., et al. (1998) Observational evidence from supernovae for an accelerating universe and cosmological constant. Astronomical Journal, 116, 1009-1038. doi:10.1086/300499

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: The basic blocks of the universe matter: Boltzmann fundamental particle and energy quanta of dark matter and dark energy

    AUTHORS: Murad Shibli, Sohail Anwar

    KEYWORDS: Dark Energy; Dark Matter; Equation of State; Boltzmann Constant; Boltzamnn particles; Einstine’s Cosmological Constant

    JOURNAL NAME: Natural Science, Vol.3 No.9, September 30, 2011

    ABSTRACT: Recent astronomical NASA observations indicates that visible matter contributes only to about 4% of the universe total energy density, meanwhile, dark matter and dark energy contributes to 26% and 70% of the universe total energy, respectively, with an average density close to 10–26 kg/m3. This paper proposes an equation of state of dark energy and dark matter as one unified entity. This equation is derived based on the ideal gas equation, Boltzmann constant, Einstein energy-mass principle and based on the assumption that dark energy and dark matter behave as a perfect fluid. This analysis presents what could be the most fundamental particle and quanta of dark matter and dark energy. Considering NASA’s Cosmic Microwave Background Explorer (CMB) which estimated that the sky has an average temperature close to 2.7251 Kelvin, then the equivalent mass and energy of the proposed fundamental particle is determined. It is found that this candidate particle has an equivalent mass of 4.2141 × 10–40 Kg which is equivalent to 3.7674 × 10–23 J. Surprisingly, this value has the same order of Boltzmann constant KB = 1.38 ×10–23 J/K. This candidate particle could be the most fundamental and lightest particle in Nature and serves as the basic block of matter (quarks and gluons). Moreover, assuming a uniform space dark energy/dark matter density, then the critical temperature at which the dark matter has a unity entity per volume is determined as 34.983 × 1012 K. Analytically, it proposes that at this trillion temperature scale, the dark matter particles unified into a new quark-hydron particle. Finally, tentative experimental verification can be con ducted using the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).