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Goldberg, I.S., Zhang, Z. and Tran, M. (1999) Steady Streaming of Fluid in the Entrance Region of a Tube during Oscillatory Flow. Physics of Fluids, 11, 2957-2962.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.870154

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Streaming Caused by Oscillatory Flow in Peripheral Airways of Human Lung

    AUTHORS: Bing Han, Hiroyuki Hirahara, Sho Yoshizaki

    KEYWORDS: Oscillatory Flow, Steady Streaming, HFOV, Bronchioles, Womersley Number

    JOURNAL NAME: Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics, Vol.6 No.3, September 22, 2016

    ABSTRACT: Oscillatory flow facilitates gas exchange in human respiration system. In the present study, both numerical calculation and PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) measurement indicate that, under the application of HFOV (High Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation), apparent steady streaming is caused and augmented in distal airways by the continuous oscillation, i.e., the core air moves downwards and the peripheral air evacuates upwards within bronchioles. The net flow of steady streaming serves to overcome the lack of tidal volume in HFOV and delivers fresh air into deeper lung region. Also, numerical calculations reveal that the intensity of steady streaming is mainly influenced by the geometry of airways with provided oscillatory frequency and tidal volume, and it rises with Re and Wo up to a Re of about 124 and Wo of about 5. Steady streaming is considered as an important factor for the ventilation efficiency of HFOV.