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ABSTRACT: The objective of this manuscript is to analyze relation involving the energy sector and socioeco-nomic growth and, then, contextualize the process of energy integration within the development policies in South America. The methodology considers data related to the world’s economy and energy consumption and energy integration policy in countries and regions; and, South America’s energy potential and the energy integration process. Results show that despite the political and institutional difficulties involving the process, energy integration can bring a lot of benefits for countries development. The process of energy integration in South America is divided in three moments, but in both periods the transnational energy projects were restricted, mostly, by a bi-lateral plan and the creation of physical links in a region. In the 21th century’s context, it should be noted Brazil’s participation which has been consolidated as a lead country in this process, and, also the IIRSA (Initiative for the Integration of Regional Infrastructure in South America, nowadays renamed as COSIPLAN) like the main initiative in energy integration in the continent, in a context where the projects are no longer limited to traditional economic blocs. Finally, we note a lack of consensus in defining a comprehensive model of integration and solving asymmetries both within countries and between them.