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Cleveland, L.R. (1956) Brief Accounts of the Sexual Cycles of the Flagellates of Cryptoserus. Journal of Protozoology, 3, 161-180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1550-7408.1956.tb02452.x

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Neoplastic-Like CELL Changes of Normal Fibroblast Cells Associated with Evolutionary Conserved Maternal and Paternal Genomic Autonomous Behavior (Gonomery)

    AUTHORS: Kirsten H. Walen

    KEYWORDS: Cytogenetics, Pathologic Cytology, Endomitosis, Division Skewedness, Pathological Mitosis, Metaphase Rosettes, Homozygous, LOH, Growth Pattern, Nutrition, Amino Acid

    JOURNAL NAME: Journal of Cancer Therapy, Vol.5 No.9, August 27, 2014

    ABSTRACT: The present comparative review discusses conservation of early evolutionary, relic genetics in the genome of man, which determine two different mechanistic reductive division systems expressed by normal, human diploid cells. The divisions were orderly and segregated genomes reductively to near-diploid daughter cells, which showed gain of a proliferative advantage (GPA) over cells of origin. This fact of GPA expression is a fundamental requirement for initiation of tumorigenesis. The division systems were responses to a carcinogen-free induction system, consisting of short (1 - 3 days) exposures of young cells to nutritional deprivation of amino acid glutamine (AAD). In recovery growth (2 - 4 days) endo-tetra/ochtoploid cells and normal diploid metaphase cells demonstrated chromosomal reductive divisions to respectively heterozygous and homozygous altered daughter cells. Both division systems showed co-segregating whole complements, which for reduction of the diploid metaphases could only arise from gonomeric-based autonomous behavior of maternal and paternal (mat/pat) genomes. The timely associated appearance with these latter divisions was fast growing small-cells (1/2 volume-size reduced from normal diploidy), which became homozygous from haploid, genomic doubling. Both reductive divisions thus produced genome altered progeny cells with GPA, which was associated with pre-cancer-like cell-phenotypic changes. Since both “undesirable” reductive divisions expressed orderly division sequences, their genetic controls were assumed to be “old genetics”, evolutionarily conserved in the genome of man. Support for this idea was a search for evidential material in the evolutionary record from primeval time, when haploid organisms were established. The theory was that endopolyploid and gonomery-based reductive divisions relieved the early eukaryotic organisms from accidental, non-proliferative diploidy and polyploidy, bringing the organism back to vegetative haploid proliferation. Asexual cycles were common for maintenance of propagating haploid and diploid early unicellular eukaryotes. Reduction of accidental diploidy was referred to as “one-step meiosis” which meant gonomeric-based maternal and paternal genomic independent segregations. This interpretation was supported by exceptional chromosomal behaviors. However, multiple divisions expressing non-disjunction was the choice-explanation from evolutionists, which today is also suggested for the rarer LL-1 near haploid leukemia. These preserved non-mitotic mechanistic divisions systems are today witnessed in apomixes and parthenogenesis in many animal phyla. Thus, the indications are the modern genome of man harbors, relic-genetics from past “good” evolvements assuring “stable” proliferation of ancient, primitive eukaryotes, but with cancer-like effects for normal human cells.