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Article citations


Buchanan, K.M.U. (2011) Water Disinfection. Nova Science Pub Inc., New York.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Free Residual Chlorine Calibration by WaterCAD at El-Nozha Water Network in Alexandria Governorate, Egypt

    AUTHORS: Diaa Hamdy, Medhat A. E. Moustafa, Walid Elbakri

    KEYWORDS: Water Distribution System, Residual Chlorine Concentration (RCC), WaterCAD, Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA), Geographic Information System (GIS), Water Treatment Plant (WTP)

    JOURNAL NAME: Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol.5 No.10, July 25, 2014

    ABSTRACT: Most of developing countries suffer from decreasing and poor quality of drinking water which led to emergence of many dangerous diseases. In addition, there isn’t any methodology followed to predict and disinfect drinking water by using advanced software program. Maintaining water quality in the water distribution system has become a prominent issue in the study of the water network. Residual chlorine concentration is the indicator to ensure the quality of water in the water network because it eliminates contaminants in the distribution network beginning of the treatment plant down to the consumer. In collaboration with Alexandria (Egypt) Water Company, samples were taken from El-NOZHA water plant station and El-HADARA water distribution network to know the free residual chlorine. In this paper, WaterCAD software has been used to make hydraulic analysis and calibration of residual chlorine in water distribution network to know the ideal chlorine dose that should be added at the water treatment plant and to know the areas of strength and weakness in the concentration of free residual chlorine in the water distribution network. In addition different scenarios have been found to know the free residual chlorine at the weakness areas after injecting chlorine in some junctions and the impact of a fire case or breaking in the water pipe distribution network on the residual chlorine. Results showed ensuring in the water quality in the distribution network by adding chlorine dose in water less than the existing dose which has been added in the El-NOZHA water treatment plant. It is possible to maintain the percentage of free residual chlorine concentration at different locations without relying on adding chlorine only in water treatment plant by injecting low percentage of chlorine dose in the junctions.