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Article citations


Rehmus, W.E., Kern, D., Janjua, R., Morré, D.M., Morré, D.J. and Knaggs, H. (2008) Appearance of Skin Ageing in Healthy Women. Correlation with arNOX Levels: A Potential New Mechanism in Ageing? Clinical Dermatology, Retinoids: Other Treatments, 24, 52-56.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Age-Related Surface Oxidases Shed into Body Fluids as Targets to Prevent Skin Aging and Reduce Cardiovascular Risk

    AUTHORS: D. James Morré, Dale Kern, Christiaan Meadows, Helen Knaggs, Dorothy M. Morré

    KEYWORDS: Atherosclerosis; Cardiovascular Risk; Age-Related NADH Oxidase (arNOX); TM9 Superfamily of Transmembrane Proteins; Serum and Body Fluids; Saliva; Skin Aging; Low Density Lipoproteins

    JOURNAL NAME: World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases, Vol.4 No.3, March 26, 2014

    ABSTRACT: Age-related Ecto-Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Oxidase Disulfide Thiol Exchangers 3 (ENOX3) or age-related NADH oxidases (arNOX) are expressed at the cell surface as five members of the TM-9 superfamily, initially membrane anchored, all functionally similar, with the N-termini exposed at the cell’s exterior. ECTO-NOXes are cell surface proteins with both time-keeping CoQH2 [NAD(P)H] oxidase and protein disulfidethiol interchange activities. They are designated as ECTO-NOX proteins because of their localization on the outer surface of the plasma membrane and to distinguish them from the phox-NOXes of host defense. A ca. 30 kDa N-terminal fragment is cleaved and accumulates in body fluids (serum, saliva, urine, perspiration). arNOXes appear around age 30 and increase steadily thereafter. Reduced quinones, i.e., reduced coenzyme Q, of the plasma membrane are natural substrates. NAD(P)H is oxidized as an artificial substrate. In one phase of the arNOX cycle electrons are transferred to oxygen to generate superoxide. Substrates for the shed forms of arNOX appear to be proteins of body fluids. Circulating lipoproteins and skin matrix proteins emerge as potentially important health-related targets. Through oxidation of collagen, elastin and other proteins of the skin matrix, arNOXes are major contributors to skin aging through tyrosine and thiol oxidation and subsequent cross linking. The main destructive action of arNOX, however, may be to directly oxidize circulating lipoproteins. arNOX in the blood is structured as an integral component of the LDL particle through site-specific binding. As such, arNOXes are implicated as major risk factors for cardiovascular disease due to specific oxidation of LDLs. The superoxide produced and its conversion to hydrogen peroxide would be one part of the potentially destructive properties by contribution to lipid oxidation. Inhibition of arNOX proteins provides a rational basis for anti-aging interventions and their elimination as a major risk factor of atherogenesis.