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Article citations


Strassen, V. (1969) Gaussian Elimination Is Not Optimal. Numerische Mathematik, 14, 354-356.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: The Better Accuracy of Strassen-Winograd Algorithms (FastMMW)

    AUTHORS: Paolo D’Alberto

    KEYWORDS: Matrix Multiplications; Algorithms; Performance; Error Analysis

    JOURNAL NAME: Advances in Linear Algebra & Matrix Theory, Vol.4 No.1, March 5, 2014

    ABSTRACT: The first error theory and bounds for Fast Matrix Multiplication based on the Strassen-Winograd algorithms (FastMMW) were formulated in the 70s. The theory introduces the concept, which is now known as weakly-stable error analysis, where the error bounds must use matrix norms instead of component-wise bounds. While the theory debunked the instability myth by using matrix scaling and a clean and simple analysis, its bounds are available only as properties of the whole matrices, which are too coarse, pessimistic, at times used to suggest instability, and are not used for algorithm optimization. We build on top of the original theory in order to reformulate the bounds: we show that tighter norm-wise and component-wise bounds are achievable by orthogonal algorithm optimizations. To achieve even better discrimination and circumvent the use of norm bounds, we develop an error theory by using communication and statistics concepts: we investigate lower and upper bounds, we estimate the practical bounds, and we investigate the algorithmic nature of the error for the class of random matrices. The theory and tools are not limited to random matrices and we can foresee further investigations to different matrix classes and algorithms. We propose new and more accurate algorithms. We show that we can improve theoretically and empirically the maximum absolute error of any FastMMW algorithm by 10% - 20% per recursion (we reduce the error by half for 4 recursions). Our theory and practice, in turn, will provide a kick start for the development of hybrid algorithms as accurate as the vendor GEMM implementation, and in certain cases even more accurate for random matrices.