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Spigno, G., Tramelli, L. and De Faveri, D.M. (2007) Ef- fects of extraction time, temperature and solvent on concentration and antioxidant activity of grape marc phenolics. Journal of Food Engineering, 81, 200-208. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2006.10.021

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Polyphenol extraction from grape wastes: Solvent and pH effect

    AUTHORS: Celia M. Librán, Luis Mayor, Esperanza M. Garcia-Castello, Daniel Vidal-Brotons

    KEYWORDS: Antioxidants; By-Products; Fruits; Solvent Extraction; Wine

    JOURNAL NAME: Agricultural Sciences, Vol.4 No.9B, November 6, 2013

    ABSTRACT: World wine industry transforms 10% - 25% of raw grapes into residues, mainly represented by lees, grape marcs, seeds and stems. These by-products are a rich source of polyphenols and therefore they can be used to produce new added value products. The aim of this work wasto determine the best process conditions(treatment time, % of ethanol and pH of the solvent)during solid-liquid extraction of polyphenolsfrom grape marcs, by analyzing the phenolic content of the extracts, namely: total polyphenol content, flavanols, flavonols, phenolic acids and anthocyanins. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was also determined. An extraction time of two hours was enough since longer times did not increase process yields. Best extraction yields were obtained for 75% ethanol solutions. Basic pH led to better yields in extracting media with low percentage of ethanol, whereas acid pH presented better extraction yields in extracting media with high percentage of ethanol. Among all the polyphenols extracted, anthocyanins were themost abundant representing over 40% of the total. In general, the best process conditions were 2 h ofextraction in a 75% EtOH liquid mixture at pH =2.