SCIRP Mobile Website
Paper Submission

Why Us? >>

  • - Open Access
  • - Peer-reviewed
  • - Rapid publication
  • - Lifetime hosting
  • - Free indexing service
  • - Free promotion service
  • - More citations
  • - Search engine friendly

Free SCIRP Newsletters>>

Add your e-mail address to receive free newsletters from SCIRP.


Contact Us >>

WhatsApp  +86 18163351462(WhatsApp)
Paper Publishing WeChat
Book Publishing WeChat

Article citations


Fine, P.E., Carneiro, I.A., Milstien, J.B. and Clemens, C.J. (1968) Issues related to the use of BCG in immunization programs: A discussion document. WHO, Geneva, 3-45.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Repeated inoculations of Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) are needed to induce a strong humoral immune response against antigens expressed by the bacteria

    AUTHORS: Monique C. da Silva, Elena B. Lasunskaia, Wilmar Dias da Silva

    KEYWORDS: Mycobacterium bovis; Bacille Calmette-Guérin; BCG; Antibodies; Opsonization; Bacterial Killing

    JOURNAL NAME: Open Journal of Immunology, Vol.3 No.3, September 18, 2013

    ABSTRACT: The cellular immune response elicited by Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been carefully investigated, but the humoral immune response has been partially neglected. BALB/c mice were immunized with BCG strain used to immunize humans. Anti-BCG antibodies, as assayed by ELISA, began to appear in the sera after the third week of immunization and plateaued three weeks after the 8th immunization. The total immunoglobulins (Igs) were purified by caprylic acid method from pooled serum collected after the 8th immunization. Anti-BCG antigen antibodies were detected in the total Igs preparation as well as in IgG, IgM, IgA, IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b, but not in the IgG3. Distinct BCG proteins were recognized the IgGs in Western blot analysis. Opsonization of BCG bacilli by the purified Igs potentiated internalization of the bacteria by murine Raw 264.7 macrophages. The intracellular BCG elimination coincided with the induction of NO production, which was more pronounced in cells infected with opsonized BCG compared to those infected with the non-opsonized bacteria. Coincidently, the production of NO was also higher in macrophages infected with opsonized BCG (maximal NO production at 48 h of incubation). The obtained results demonstrate that repeated inoculations of BCG effectively activate the humoral immune response, justifying the use of BCG as a live recombinant vaccine vector to insert genes encoding virulence factors controlled by antibodies.