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S. W. Williston, “The Kansas Niobrara Cretaceous,” Kansas University Geological Survey, Vol. 2, 1897, pp. 235-246.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Timing of Onset of Volcanic Centers in the Campanian of Western North America as Determined by Distal Ashfalls

    AUTHORS: Janet L. Bertog

    KEYWORDS: Pierre Shale; Niobrara Formation; Volcanism; Forearc; Campanian

    JOURNAL NAME: Open Journal of Geology, Vol.3 No.2, April 30, 2013

    ABSTRACT: Strata of the Late Cretaceous Niobrara Formation and Pierre Shale Group include bentonites that provide a distal record of volcanic activity taking place to the west. Detailed stratigraphic analysis combined with mineralogy and geochemistry of the bentonites indicates the following timing of events: 1) Eustatic sea level fall as a result of the end of the Niobrara Cycle; 2) Tectonic deformation of the Western Interior Seaway coincident with tectonism on the Absoroka Thrust in Wyoming and Late Canyon Range Thrust in Utah; 3) Backarc volcanism in Montana associated with the Little Elkhorn Mountain volcanic complex; 4) Forearc volcanism in the Cascades area indicates subduction of a hot oceanic crust where plagioclase in the oceanic crust is being incorporated into the melt; 5) Cessation of tectonic activity results in a return of sedimentation patterns to north-south trending belts with the Boyer Bay and Burning Brule members of the Sharon Springs Formation deposited to the east and the Mitten Black Shale Formation deposited in the basin.