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American Academy of Pediatrics, “Clinical Practice Guideline: Diagnosis and Evaluation of the Child with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder,” Pediatrics, Vol. 105, No. 5, 2000, pp. 1158-1170. doi:10.1542/peds.105.5.1158

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Enrichment Discrimination Behavior in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    AUTHORS: Ramiz M. Salimov, Georgy I. Kovalev

    KEYWORDS: Attention Deficit; Enrichment Discrimination; Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat; Atomoxetine

    JOURNAL NAME: Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, Vol.2 No.4, November 30, 2012

    ABSTRACT: Objectives: 1) To reveal, among spontaneously hypertensive rats, subpopulations that diverge in attention to objects enriching an empty cross-maze; 2) To evaluate effect of clinically efficient drug for treatment of attention deficiency atomoxetine on the attention to environmental cues in attentionally-low rats. Method: A novel paradigm that provides measure of attention towards enriching objects independent of general locomotor activity and spatial orientation is employed. The apparatus consists of 4-arm radial maze, two arms of which contain objects (enriched compartments). Animals exploring the objects typically stay longer in enriched parts of maze than in empty arms and have a higher score of enrichment discrimination ratio. Results: Frequency distribution of the enrichment discrimination ratio had clear bimodal shape that differed significantly from normal distribution suggesting the existence of subpopulations of attentionally-low and -high individuals. The attentionally-low phenotype did not show inferiority in spatial orientation as compared with attentionally-high phenotype. The phenotypes did not differ from each other in measures of locomo- tor activity and blood pressure. Atomoxetine (3 mg/kg, orally, once daily for 4 days) enhanced enrichment discrimina- tion in animals of attentionally-low phenotype. Single administration of the drug was ineffective. Conclusion: Popula- tion of spontaneously hypertensive rat includes two phenotypes of attentionally-low and -high individuals. Subchronic atomoxetine ameliorates attention to environmental cues in attentionally-low rats. The enrichment discrimination test could be useful in studies of neurobiology of attention deficit condition and for screening of novel drug candidates.