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Y. Liao, M. Joiner, Y. Huang and J. Burmeister, “Hypofractionation: What Does It Mean for Prostate Cancer Treatment?” International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, Vol. 76, 2010, pp. 260-268. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.06.043

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Dose Perturbations of Gold Fiducial Markers in the Prostate Cancer Intensity Modulated Proton Radiation Therapy (IMPT)

    AUTHORS: Miao Zhang, Sung Kim, Ting Chen, Xiaohu Mo, Bruce G. Haffty, Ning J. Yue

    KEYWORDS: Gold Fiducial Marker; Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy; Prostate Cancer; Monte Carlo

    JOURNAL NAME: International Journal of Medical Physics, Clinical Engineering and Radiation Oncology, Vol.1 No.1, June 18, 2012

    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to investigate the dose perturbations introduced by the implanted gold fiducial markers in the prostate cancer intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) and the impacts of different plan designs on the pertur-bations. Five proton plans: a single lateral field 3D-modulation (3D-mod) plan, 2 fields laterally opposing 3D-mod plan, 6-, 9-, and 18-field distal edge tracking (DET) plans were designed on the CT images of a prostate patient. The dose distributions were first generated for the plans free of fiducial markers with 78 Gy prescribed to 95% of the PTV. To derive the dose perturbations of the gold fiducial markers, three cylindrical shaped gold fiducial markers (3 mm long and 1 mm in diameter) were artificially inserted into the prostate, and the dose distributions were re-computed. Monte Carlo method was used for dose computation. It was found that the gold fiducial markers perturbed the dose distribu-tions, especially along the beam paths. The markers caused a shadowing effect reducing the doses in the areas beyond the markers. Overall, due to the presence of the fiducial markers, D99% of prostate were reduced by 2.96 Gy, 4.21 Gy, 0.16 Gy, 0.34 Gy, 0.15 Gy for the plans of single field 3D-mod, 2-field parallel opposed 3D-mod, 6-, 9-, and 18-field DET respectively. Our study showed these dose perturbation effects decreased with the increase of number of beam angles. Up to 6 beam angles may be required to reduce the dose perturbations from the gold fiducial markers to a clini- cally acceptable level in IMPT.