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Wolinsky, T.D., Swanson, C.J., Smith, K.E., Zhong, H., Borowsky, B., Seeman, P., Branchek, T. and Gerald, C.P. (2007) The Trace Amine 1 receptor knockout mouse: An animal model with relevance to schizophrenia. Genes, Brain and Behavior, 6, 628-639. doi:10.1111/j.1601-183X.2006.00292.x

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: NSC-induced D-neurons are decreased in striatum of schizophrenia: Possible cause of mesolimbic dopamine hyperactivity

    AUTHORS: Keiko Ikemoto

    KEYWORDS: Dopamine; D-neuron; Ventral Tegmental Area; Schizophrenia; TAAR1

    JOURNAL NAME: Stem Cell Discovery, Vol.2 No.2, April 25, 2012

    ABSTRACT: Neural stem cell (NSC) hypofunction is an etiological hypothesis of schizophrenia. Although dopamine (DA) dysfunction is also a widely accepted hypothesis, molecular background of mesolimbic DA hyperactivity has not yet been well known. Here, the author proposes “D-cell hypothesis”, accounting for molecular basis of mesolimbic DA hyperactivity of schizophrenia, by NSC hypofunction and decrease of putative NSC-induced D-cells. The “D-cell” is defined as “non-monoaminergic aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC)-containing cell”. D-cells produce trace amines, and also take up amine precursors and convert them to amines by decarboxylation. The author reported “dopa-decarboxylating neurons specific to the human striatum”, that is, “D-neurons” in the human striatum, and decrease of striatal D-neurons in patients with schizophrenia. Trace amine-associated receptor, type 1 (TAAR1), a subtype of trace amine receptors, having a quite number of ligands such as tyramine, β-phenylethylamine (PEA) and methamphetamine, has modulating functions on monoamine neurons. It has been known that reduced binding of ligands to TAAR1 receptors on DA terminal of DA neurons of the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA) increased firing frequency of VTA DA neurons. In brains of schizophrenia, NSC hypofunction in the subventricular zone of lateral ventricle may cause decrease of D-neurons in the striatum and nucleus accumbens, and may result in decrease of trace amine signals. Decrease of trace amine signals to TAAR1 on VTA DA neurons may increase firing frequency of VTA DA neurons, and may finally cause mesolimbic DA hyperactivity. Increased stimulation to DA D2 receptors of NSCs might suppress NSC proliferation, and may induce additional mesolimbic DA hyperactivity as well as D-cell decrease. This novel theory, “D-cell hypothesis”, possibly explains mesolimbic DA hyperactivity in pathogenesis of schizophrenia.