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Collins, A., Brown, J. S. & Holum, A. (1991). Cognitive apprenticeship: Making thinking visible. American Educator, 15 (3), 6-11, 38-39.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Developmental Process of Dialogical Critical Thinking in Groups of Pupils Aged 4 to 12 Years

    AUTHORS: Marie-France Daniel, Mathieu Gagnon

    KEYWORDS: Critical Thinking, Epistemology, Philosophy for Children, Preschool and Elementary School Pupils, Scaffolding

    JOURNAL NAME: Creative Education, Vol.2 No.5, December 1, 2011

    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to model the development of critical thinking in groups of pupils aged 4 to 12 years. A previous study, conducted with groups of pupils aged 9 to 12 years who practiced Philosophy for Children (P4C), proposed a model that shows how critical thinking develops in these age groups. The present empirical study was conducted in three geographical contexts (Quebec, Ontario and France) with 17 classrooms of pupils who had practiced P4C. Based on a qualitative method of analysis that stems from the Grounded Theory, analysis of the 17 transcripts of exchanges resulted in a revised model of the developmental process of critical thinking that is defined by four thinking modes and six epistemological perspectives. Using this revised model, a further analysis of the transcripts illustrated that the development of critical thinking occurred through a process of fading and appropriation/transformation, which is associated with “scaffolding”.