SCIRP Mobile Website

Why Us? >>

  • - Open Access
  • - Peer-reviewed
  • - Rapid publication
  • - Lifetime hosting
  • - Free indexing service
  • - Free promotion service
  • - More citations
  • - Search engine friendly

Free SCIRP Newsletters>>

Add your e-mail address to receive free newsletters from SCIRP.


Contact Us >>

WhatsApp  +86 18163351462(WhatsApp)
Paper Publishing WeChat
Book Publishing WeChat

Article citations


Prasert, C. and Ratchanee (2008) The Times Models for Forecasting International Visitor Arrivals to Thailand. Journal of European Economy (Special Issue).

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Forecasting Annual International Tourist Arrivals in Zambia Using Holt-Winters Exponential Smoothing

    AUTHORS: Stanley Jere, Alick Banda, Bornwell Kasense, Ian Siluyele, Edwin Moyo

    KEYWORDS: Zambia, International Tourist Arrivals, Holt-Winters Model, ARIMA, Forecasting

    JOURNAL NAME: Open Journal of Statistics, Vol.9 No.2, April 28, 2019

    ABSTRACT: Tourism is one of the major contributors to foreign exchange earnings to Zambia and world economy. Annual International tourist arrivals in Zambia from 1995 to 2014 are considered in this paper. In this study we evaluated the model performance of Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) and Holt Winters exponential smoothing (HWES). The error indicators: Mean percentage error (MPE), Mean absolute error (MAE), Mean absolute scaled error (MASE), Root-mean-square error (RMSE) and Mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) showed that HWES is an appropriate model with reasonable forecast accuracy. The HWES (α = 1, β = 0.1246865) showed smallest error than those of the ARIMA (0, 1, 2) models. Hence, the HWES (α = 1, β = 0.1246865) can be used to model annual international tourist arrivals in Zambia. Further, forecasting results give a gradual increase in annual international tourist arrivals of about 42% by 2024. Accurate forecasts are key to new investors and Policymakers. The Zambian government should use such forecasts in formulating policies and making strategies that will promote the tourism industry.