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Vilalta-Franch, J., Calvo-Perxas, L., Garre-Olmo, J., Turro-Garriga, O. and Lopez-Pousa, S. (2013) Apathy Syndrome in Alzheimer’s Disease Epidemiology: Prevalence, Incidence, Persistence, and Risk and Mortality Factors. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 33, 535-543.
https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-2012-120913

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: The Efficacy and Safety of Yokukansankachimpihange for Treating Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease: An Open-Label Pilot Study

    AUTHORS: Ryutaro Arita, Tetsuhiro Yoshino, Miwako Ohgishi, Takuya Hamaguchi, Yuko Horiba, Kaori Sawai, Kei Funaki, Hajime Tabuchi, Mizuki Oka, Takahito Yoshizaki, Kenji Watanabe, Masaru Mimura

    KEYWORDS: Alzheimer’s Disease, Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia, Yokukansankachimpihange, Kampo Medicine, Apathy, Neuropsychiatric Inventory

    JOURNAL NAME: Advances in Alzheimer's Disease, Vol.7 No.4, December 10, 2018

    ABSTRACT: Previous clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of yokukansan, a traditional Japanese medicine, for the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). However, less evidence is available for the treatment of BPSD with yokukansankachimpihange (YKSCH), which consists of yokukansan and two additional herbal ingredients. The present study was conducted to investigate the efficacy and safety of YKSCH for treating BPSD in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We enrolled outpatients with mild-to-moderate AD who exhibited BPSD and obtained a Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) score of >3 including subscale scores for “agitation”, “anxiety”, “irritability”, and “sleep and night-time behavior change”. A daily YKSCH dose of 7.5 g was administered for 12 weeks with concomitant administration of anti-dementia medication. BPSD was evaluated using the NPI at baseline and every 4 weeks during the intervention. We also examined apathy using the Japanese translation of the Apathy Scale, the short version of the Japanese version of the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview, and the Modified Crichton Rating Scale for Predicting Activities of Daily Living. Cognitive dysfunction was evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination and the AD Assessment Scale-Cognitive (Japanese version). Five participants were enrolled. The NPI total score tended to decrease between the baseline and 8-week evaluations during the YKSCH intervention (Wilcoxon signed rank test, P = 0.063). In terms of the NPI subscale scores, “apathy”, “agitation”, “delusions”, and “sleep and night-time behavior change” decreased after the intervention in those who exhibited each symptom at baseline. There were no significant differences in the other scores examined. No serious adverse events were observed. YKSCH could ameliorate BPSD in patients with mild-to-moderate AD with agitation, anxiety, irritability, and sleep and night-time behavior change, and it was well-tolerated.