Why Us? >>

  • - Open Access
  • - Peer-reviewed
  • - Rapid publication
  • - Lifetime hosting
  • - Free indexing service
  • - Free promotion service
  • - More citations
  • - Search engine friendly

Free SCIRP Newsletters>>

Add your e-mail address to receive free newsletters from SCIRP.

 

Contact Us >>

WhatsApp  +86 18163351462(WhatsApp)
   
Paper Publishing WeChat
Book Publishing WeChat
(or Email:book@scirp.org)

Article citations

More>>

Hu, K., Huang, Y., Li, H., Li, B., Chen, D. and White, R.E. (2005) Spatial Variability of Shallow Groundwater Levels, Electrical Conductivity and Nitrate Concentration and Risk Assessment of Nitrate Contamination in North China Plain. Environmental International Journal, 31, 896-903.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2005.05.028

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Assessing Quality of Reclaimed Urban Wastewater from Algarrobo Municipality to Be Used for Irrigation

    AUTHORS: Desireé Muñoz-Sánchez, Veronika Bogodist, Vicente Manuel García-Cañizares, David Frías-Gil, María Remedios López-Díaz, Emilio Jaime-Fernández, María Remedios Romero-Aranda

    KEYWORDS: Reclaimed Urban Water, MBR, Electrical Conductivity, SAR, Nutrients, Trace Elements, Heavy Metals

    JOURNAL NAME: Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol.10 No.11, November 15, 2018

    ABSTRACT: In the European Mediterranean area, the lack of available water resources had led to consider the reclaimed urban waters as an integral part of water resources. Reclaimed urban waters could mitigate water shortage, support agriculture sector and protect rivers and groundwater resources. This work is focused on the evaluation of reclaimed urban water (RW) from Algarrobo municipality, which is located in the Málaga province in the Mediterranean coast at South-East of Spain. Wastewater in the municipal waste water treatment plant, was treated by a membrane bioreactor (MBR) as a tertiary treatment. The main goal of this work was to determine the composition of RW to be compared with fresh local water (LW) from the Algarrobo River, in order to evaluate its suitability for irrigation. Electrical conductivity (EC), pH, sodium absorption ratio (SAR), and mineral content were weekly measured from September 2017 until June 2018. Assessment of RW quality was carried out considering the limit values for each parameter as stated by the current Spanish legislation RD 1620/2007 for reuse of reclaimed water and European Directive for water reuse (EU 91/271/EEC, Annex I). The MBR facility was also focused on preserving essential minerals for plant nutrition to use them for crop fertilization instead of commercial fertilizers. The average content of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium were, respectively, 72%, 65% and 46% of the amount needed for the Hoagland 1/4 strength solution that was used in this study for irrigation of tomato, avocado and mango crops. From this study it appears that it is possible using membrane technology, to treat urban wastewater in order to supply a good quality of water for irrigation. Water analysis has also proved MBR to be efficient for removal of microbiological pollutants, inorganic compounds, some trace elements and heavy metals. The assessment of RW shows that the evaluated parameters of water-quality are within the range of values stated by Spanish legislation and the current European Directive for secure use of reclaimed water for irrigation.