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Article citations


Ghali, M.G.Z. (2017) The Bulbospinal Network Controlling the Phrenic Motor System: Laterality and Course of Descending Projections. Neuroscience Research, 121, 7-17.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: New Insights on Stimulating the Lung Meridian Based on Modern Neurophysiology

    AUTHORS: Peter Chin Wan Fung, Regina Kit Chee Kong

    KEYWORDS: Traditional Chinese Medicine, Lung Meridian, Acupuncture, Acupressure, Moxibustion, Spinothalamic, Anterior Corticospinal, Lateral Corticospinal and Bulbospinal Tracts, Respiratory Centers, Pre-Sympathetic Neurons, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases, Sleep Apnea

    JOURNAL NAME: Chinese Medicine, Vol.9 No.3, July 9, 2018

    ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) caused 3.2 million deaths worldwide in 2015 [1]. Therapeutic treatments, including acupuncture & herbal medicine have been applied to handle this disease with certain efficacies in the domain of traditional Chinese Medicine. However, very few analyses on the mechanisms behind the efficacies can be found in literature. Without understanding the basic mechanisms behind any medical treatment is the bottle-neck to advancement of possibly effective therapy of any kind. Based on this argument, we start off a series of studies on the neurophysiological consequence of acupuncture/acupressure applied to the Lung Meridian. We explain how the sensory signals (by sympathetic nerves) follow the spinothalamic tracts to the thalamus and then to the primary sensory cortex. The neurons of these ascending tracts synapse the motor neurons which activate some of the different organs of the respiratory system—diaphragm, nose, larynx, scalene muscles, trachea, lungs, intercostal and supporting abdominal muscles. The sensory signals at the neo-cortex are then passed on to the motor neurons in the primary motor cortex. The activated neurons project mainly along two descending tracts: anterior and lateral corticospinal tracts. Neurons of these tracts project to activate again some of the respiratory organs, plus the motors neurons related to the digestive system, including the large intestine. On the other hand, an intrinsic, automatic breathing system in the brainstem sends rhythmic signals through the bulbospinal tract system, which contains a special type of neurons—the pre-sympathetic neurons. These neurons, via interneuron relay, synapse motor neurons which mobilize the organs of the respiratory organs to function. Since the “Lung Meridian induced” signals and the intrinsic signals are sent by different types of neurons, we propose that stimulating the Lung Meridian might activate/supplement the action of the intrinsic system during some pathological states. Though the initial suggestion is supported by in vitro/(in vivo) experiments in detailed steps, clinical trials await future development.