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Krauss, L.M. and Chaboyer, B. (2003) Science, 299, 65-69.
https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1075631

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Speed of Gravitation and Electromagnetic Waves through the Dark Energy of Intergalactic Space and Its Implications of a Unified Theory

    AUTHORS: Frank R. Tangherlini

    KEYWORDS: Speed of Gravitational Waves, Dark Energy, Hubble Constant, Absence of Neutrino Correlation with GRBs

    JOURNAL NAME: Journal of Modern Physics, Vol.9 No.4, March 19, 2018

    ABSTRACT: The recent finding that gravitational waves (GW170817) traveled at the same speed as electromagnetic (EM) waves (GRB 170817A) from a binary neutron star merger does not necessarily mean that they traveled throughout their journey at speed c. Some recent works by the author (2015) Journal of Modern Physics, 6, 78-87, and 1360-1370; (2016), 7, 1829-1844; (2017), 8, 622-635 show that the diminished brightness of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) can be explained by assuming that dark energy, instead of having a negative pressure, has an index of refraction n, causing the speed of light through intergalactic space (IGS) to be reduced to c/n, with n≈1.5. It follows that GWs (not considered in the previous works) would also travel with speed c/n through IGS. However, speed of GWs and EMWs within galaxies themselves is c. A brief review of the model is given, together with other predictions, e.g., new values for the Hubble constant and age of the universe, and necessary absence of correlation of neutrinos with gamma ray bursts (GRBs), in agreement with numerous searches. In the previous works, there were implications of a unified theory. If the model holds, since GWs would experience the same speed reduction as EMWs, this would further support unification. An improved falsification methodology for a previously proposed astronomical test based on discordant redshifts is given.