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Article citations


Kalaydjiev, S.K., Dimitrova, D.K., Trifonova, N.L., Fichorova, R.N., Masharova, N.G., Raicheva, Y.N., Simeonova, M.N., Todorova, E.I., Todorov, V.I. and Nakov, L.S. (2002) The Age Related Changes in the Incidence of “Natural” Anti-Sperm Antibodies Suggest They Are Not Auto-/Isoantibodies. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 47, 65-71.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Etiology of Antisperm Antibodies in the Serum of Virgins

    AUTHORS: Ali A. Al-Fahham

    KEYWORDS: Antisperm, Antibodies, Virgins, Infertility, Case-Study

    JOURNAL NAME: Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol.8 No.3, March 16, 2018

    ABSTRACT: Background: The study of ASA etiology is very important in the diagnosis and treatment of infertility. Studies of presence of antisperm antibodies in the bodies of unmarried women are very rare, so that this article aims at studying the possible causes and interpretations behind the development of antisperm antibodies in virgins. Methodology: The study included 5 single women with positive ASA. Description and clinical history of the patients was assessed by special questionnaire provided for this purpose. All laboratory investigations and diagnostic procedures were done in the hospital from 1st August to 15th December 2017. Results: The mean serum antisperm antibody concentrations (64.3 IU/ml) which is considered positive titer. The incidence of ASA among virgins is 2.22%. Complete blood count is normal except for slight increase in WBC count and percentage of basophils, monocytes and lymphocytes. This study recorded high concentrations of serum total IgG and IgM levels (1875 IU/ml and 295 IU/ml respectively). The UTI was confirmed by counting total bacterial concentration (178,250 CFU/ml) in the urine, and diagnosis of suspected causes showed the following species: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, and Proteus mirabilis. Conclusions: There are two suggested mechanisms to explain ASA in virgins: 1) antigen cross-reactivity between sperm and bacterial antigens to which antibodies can react; 2) induction of the immune system by antigens of sperm ingested into the gastrointestinal tract with contaminated food and drink. Recommendations: it is recommended to conduct a research study that include a large number of virgins for investigating ASA to confirm our results and build a scientific generalizations , in addition to animal studies for testing the role of sperm ingestion in the induction of immune system.