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Article citations


Mara, D. (1996) Low-Cost Urban Sanitation. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Faecal Sludge Management in Botswana: A Review of Current Practices and Policies Using the Case of Gaborone Low Income Areas

    AUTHORS: Phillimon T. Odirile, Innocent Thukwi, Ontiretse Dintwa, Bontle Mbongwe

    KEYWORDS: VIP Latrine, Faecal Sludge Management, Sanitation, Sludge Management Policy

    JOURNAL NAME: Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol.9 No.2, February 25, 2018

    ABSTRACT: In the past sanitation was the responsibility of Local Authorities or councils with the Department of Waste Management and Pollution Control (DWMPC). Pollution of groundwater in Botswana is currently forcing the Government of Botswana (GoB) to abandon pit latrine construction and Ventilated Improved Pit (VIP) emptying services in peri-urban areas. Currently Government has embarked on the expensive and unsustainable construction of sewer systems that require peri-urban communities to pay for connection fees. Most rural communities cannot afford these fees and since Botswana is a water scarce country, sewer connection may be costly for the country. This paper aims to review current practices, policies and challenges facing Botswana in Faecal Sludge Management (FSM). A desktop review was carried out to review policies, regulations, guidelines and strategies on waste management. A pretested questionnaire was administered among 50 randomly selected households to assess current practices in sludge management from two suburbs in Gaborone. Key informant interviews were undertaken among water and sanitation stakeholders to establish roles on waste management and faecal sludge management. Despite the disjointed efforts by stakeholders, Botswana has the potential to improve the FSM in the country. Though unsafe, FSM/pit emptying has the potential to provide income and employment to both the rural and urban poor and making it safe may have wider economic benefits.