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Article citations


Polanski, L.T., Baumgarten, M.N., Quenby, S., Brosens, J., Campbell, B.K. and Raine-Fenning, N.J. (2014) What Exactly Do We Mean by “Recurrent Implantation Failure”? A Systematic Review and Opinion. Reproductive Biomedicine Online, 28, 409-423.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Recurrent Implantation Failure and Low Molecular Weight Heparin

    AUTHORS: Dalia Khalife, Ghina Ghazeeri

    KEYWORDS: Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin, Recurrent Implantation Failure, Thrombophilia, Anti-Coagulation, Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    JOURNAL NAME: Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol.8 No.2, February 12, 2018

    ABSTRACT: Implantation of the embryo into the endometrium is the first step in the establishment of pregnancy. This process is complex, and depends on many factors. Recurrent implantation failure is a source of distress to patients and specialists. It is defined as failure to achieve a viable pregnancy, following “>3 embryo transfers with high quality embryos or the transfer of ≥ 10 embryos in multiple transfers”. Thrombophilic conditions that contribute to recurrent implantation failure are the main concern in this review. The mechanism of implantation failure is believed to be due to decreased blood flow to the endometrium and placenta which can hinder normal endometrial receptivity leading to miscarriage. Defects in early placentation resulting in pregnancy failure, have focused attention on the therapeutic potential of low molecular weight heparin in the implantation process. Heparin has a role at all stages of implantation to improve pregnancy outcomes. There are controversies in literature regarding the association between thrombophilia and recurrent implantation failure and available literature regarding this issue is very heterogeneous. Various investigators, have shown that women with RIF are more likely to have a thrombophilia disorder, yet a clear cause cannot be acknowledged from these studies. Heparin treatment has been evaluated in several studies, showing conflicting evidence. However, several studies have pointed out that it may play a role in a subset of patients who presents a thrombophilia mutation, thus the group of patients that might benefit is needed to be identified. This review is dedicated to evaluate the published literature about the role of low molecular weight heparin in case of recurrent implantation failure with or without the presence of thrombophilia.