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Horsfall, J.G. and Barratt, R.W. (1945) An Improved Grading System for Measuring Diseases. Phytopathology, 35, 655.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Extending the Shelf-Life of Myrothecium verrucaria, a Bioherbicide

    AUTHORS: Robert E. Hoagland, C. D. Boyette, K. C. Stetina

    KEYWORDS: Bioherbicide, Plant Pathogen, Weed Control, Lyophilization, Freeze-Drying, Mycelium, Mycoherbicide, Myrothecium verrucaria

    JOURNAL NAME: American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol.8 No.12, November 29, 2017

    ABSTRACT: The shelf-life of a bioherbicide product is an important factor with regard to its commercial potential. The bioherbicidal efficacy of freshly fermented Myrothecium verrucaria (strain IMI 368023) (MV) mycelia formulations and MV mycelia preparations that had been freeze-dried and then stored at -20°C for 8 years was compared. Two concentrations of each formulation (1.0x and 0.5x) were tested, utilizing bioassays on seedlings of the weed, hemp sesbania (Sesbania exaltata) under greenhouse conditions or in darkness utilizing hydroponically grown seedlings. Freeze drying of freshly prepared MV mycelium produced a light, brownish-colored powder. Efficacy tests of this reconstituted 8-year-old dried material showed that some bioherbicidal activity was lost during long-term storage, i.e., ~20% and ~60% seedling dry weight reduction at the 1.0x and 0.5x rate, respectively. Although plant mortality was greater in the fresh mycelial preparations treatments versus the freeze-dried and stored samples at all time points in the time-course, the stored material still caused >80% mortality, 15 days after treatment. Comparative disease progression ratings also showed a similar trend. Overall results show that freeze-drying MV is a useful method to reduce the bulk and cumbersomeness of storing heavy liquid fermentation product, while retaining bioherbicidal activity. These findings increase the utility of this bioherbicide and offer the potential to use the dried material in soil treatments or in a more concentrated form than attainable via the fermented product.